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Diodorus

(3,891 words)

Author(s): Kinzl, Konrad (Peterborough) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Bartels, Jens (Bonn) | Et al.
(Διόδωρος, Διόδορος; Diódōros, Diódoros). Well-known representatives of the name: the philosopher D. [4] Kronos, the mathematician D. [8] of Alexandria, the universal historian D. [18] Siculus, the early Christian theologian D. [20] of Tarsus. [German version] [1] Athenian fleet commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, fleet commander with Mantitheus at the end of 408-407 BC at the Hellespont with a sufficient number of ships, so that Alcibiades [3] was able to sail to Samos and Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,68,2). (Traill, PAA 329550; Develin 171). Kinzl, …

Acrotatus

(173 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
(Ἀκρότατος; Akrótatos). [German version] [1] Older son of  Cleomenes II (2nd half of 4th cent. BC) Older son of  Cleomenes II, Agiad, left Sparta in 315/14 BC without the permission of the ephors in order to conduct for the banned Syracusians and their allies the war against  Agathocles [2]. In the course of this A. is supposed to have been very savage and debauched without achieving larger military successes; he was therefore expelled and died soon thereafter in Sparta even before his father (Diod. Sic. 19,70 f.; Paus. 1,13,5; 3,6,2; Plut. Agis 3). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) …

Gannys

(141 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Γάννυς; Gánnys). G. was raised in the house of  Iulia Maesa and had a relationship with her daughter  Iulia Soaemias, who made him the tutor of her son  Elagabalus [2] (Cass. Dio 79,6,1f. Boissevain). G. and  Valerius Comazon had the troops elevate Elagabalus to emperor in Emesa in May AD 218 (Cass. Dio 78,31,2-4). Despite a lack of military experience, G. defeated  Macrinus in June, but was eliminated in the winter of 218-219 by Elagabalus, who had toyed with the idea of marrying…

Agesandridas

(76 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἀγησανδρίδας; Agēsandrídas) Spartan, son of Agesander, vanquished the Athenians under  Thymochares with a Peloponnesian fleet in 411 BC at Eretria, which caused Euboea (with the exception of Oreos) to secede from Athens (Thuc. 8,94 ff.). After the Spartan defeat at Cynossema (411), A. was sent with a contingent to the Hellespont, where he beat Thymochares again (Thuc. 8,107; Xen. Hell. 1,1,1). In 409/08 he was in Thrace (Xen. Hell. 1,3,17). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Ermanaric,

(184 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (H)ermanaricus (also Ermenrichus, Hermenerig). King of the East Goths who, as the first historically documented  Amal, already belongs to the 10th generation of the Amal family tree (Iord. Get. 79 from Cassiodorus). He was the youngest son of Achiulf, brother of Ansila, Ediulf and Vultuulf, and was regarded as the founder of the ‘younger’ family line which, in AD 515, rejoined the 'older' line, founded by Vultuulf, as a result of the marriage of  Eutharicus with  Amalasuntha (Iord…

Epicteta

(384 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Ἐπικτήτα; Epiktḗta). Widow of the aristocrat Phoenix from Thera. Under the instruction of her son Andragoras, who died two years after his father, she completed the construction of a shrine to the Muses (mouseion) that Phoenix had started, as a memorial to their son Cratesilochus, but had not been able to finish. In her will (early 2nd cent. BC, preserved epigraphically: IG XII 3,330, l. 1-108), E. entrusted the mouseion to her ‘heiress’ (  epikleros ) daughter Epiteleia. In the will she provided for the setting up of an association o…

Godigisclus

(92 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Godigisel, Godegisel). Burgundian king, son of  Gundiok, lived from c. AD 474 in Geneva, always in the shadow of his older brother  Gundobad (Ennod. Vita Epiphanii 174). In 500, together with the king of the Franks, Chlodovechus ( Clovis I), he defeated Gundobad at Dijon, but in 501 he was killed by the latter when Chlodovechus had to turn against the Visigoths (Greg. Tur. Franc. 2,32f; Chron. min. 2,234 Mommsen). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography PLRE 2, 516 (Godigisel 2) Stein, Spätröm. R., 2, 144 with n. 2.

Eutharicus, Eutharic

(142 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Grandson of Berimund of the Amal dynasty, called to Italy by Theoderic the Great in AD 515 and married to  Amalasuntha in order to secure the succession (Iord. Get. 298). He was later adopted by Justin as his son-at-arms, received Roman citizenship; at the assumption of his consulate in 519 ─ on the occasion of which Cassiodorus had written a speech (MGH AA 12,465ff.) and probably also compiled his chronicle ─, he was called Flavius E. Cillica (CIL VI 32003). When he responded rig…

Claudius

(10,704 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Kierdorf, Wilhelm (Cologne) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Et al.
Name of a Roman lineage (Sabine Clausus, with the vernacular variant of   Clodius , esp. in the 1st cent. BC). The Claudii supposedly immigrated to Rome from the Sabine city of Regillum at the beginning of the republic in 504 BC under their ancestor Att(i)us Clausus ( Appius) and were immediately accepted into the circle of patrician families (Liv. 2,16,4-6), which explains why the early members received the invented epithets of Inregillensis C. [I 5-6] and Sabinus C. [I 31-32], [1. 155f.]. The praenomen Appius came to signify the family. Named after them was the Tribus Claudi…

Candidus

(240 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Bloch, René (Berne) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
A popular cognomen in the Imperial Age, attested with certainty from the 1st cent. AD (ThlL, Onom. 2,133ff.). [German version] [1] Christian in AD 200 Christian in c. AD 200, author of various lost treatise about the Hexaemeron (Eus. HE 5,27; Jer. vir. ill. 48). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus, 3rd cent. AD A follower of the Gnostic Valentinianus; in c. AD 230, he had a public dispute with  Origen, who accused him of retrospectively falsifying the records (Rufin. Apol. Orig. epil. = PG 17,625; Hier. Adv. Ru…

Herminafrid

(117 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] King of the Thuringians c. AD 507/511-531/2. Around 510 he married  Amalaberga, the niece of the king of the Ostrogoths  Theoderic the Great, and thus became involved in his policy of alliances (Anon. Vales. 12,70; Cassiod. Var. 4,1; Iord. Get. 299; Procop. Goth. 5,12,22). H. initially ruled with his brothers Baderic and Berthar. After their murder, he was sole ruler until he was overthrown by the king of the Franks  Theoderic c. 531/2. He died shortly afterwards. His territory became part of Franconia (Greg. Tur. Franc. 3,4-8; Procop. Goth. 5,13,1f.…

Gentunis

(56 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] (Genzon). Son of  Geisericus, brother of Hunericus, father of Gunthamundus, Gelaridus, and Thrasamund (Procop. Vand. 1,5,11; 8,6-8; 9,6). In AD 468, he participated in the naval battle against  Basiliscus (Procop. Vand. 1,6,24), only to die in 477, preceding his father in death. PLRE 2,502-503 (Genton 1). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Hildericus, Hilderic

(135 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] Son of  Hunericus and Eudocia [2], the daughter of Valentinian III (Theoph. 5964; 6026), king of the Vandals in AD 523-530 who ended the anti-Catholic policies of his predecessors and attempted to come closer to Byzantium (he minted coins with the image of Justin I [1. 94]), while the relationship with the East Goths deteriorated considerably. The Vandal opposition under the leadership of  Gelimer therefore took advantage of a defeat of H.'s troops against Arabs in Byzacena to dep…

Patronomos

(197 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (πατρονόμος, ‘guardian of the ancestral traditions’). Predominantly epigraphically attested title of a Spartan annual official, created in c. 227 BC by Cleomenes [6] III; the institution of this office was probably connected with the temporary abolition of the éphoroi and the limitation of the political influence of the  gerousía (Paus. 2,9,1). In the Roman period, the patronomos, attested from the 1st cent. BC as Sparta's eponymous magistrate, oversaw six sýnarchoi or synpatronómoi (cf. IG V 1,48; SEG XI 503 with [2]). The tasks of a patronomos, which were linked…

Damippus

(106 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Δάμιππος; Dámippos). Spartan in the service of Hieronymus of Syracuse to whom he gave the advice of adherence to the alliance with Rome in 215 BC (Pol. 7,5,3). Later he also served Epicydes; in 212 he was sent as envoy to Philip V of Macedonia, and in the process fell into the hands of the Romans. The negotiations for his release, in the course of which M. Claudius [I 11] Marcellus noticed a tower that was only poorly guarded by the Syracusans, ultimately led to the successful Roman attack on Epipolae (Liv. 25,23,8ff.; Plut. Marcellus 18; Polyaenus, Strat. 8,11). Meier, Mischa…

Hegesidamus

(22 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)
[German version] (Ἡγησίδαμος; Hēgēsídamos). In the Suda s.v. Ἱππίας/ Hippías named as the teacher of  Hippias of Elis. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld)

Peace, concept of

(30 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] A unified notion of peace, comparable to the modern concept, was unknown in Antiquity. Eirene; Koine Eirene; Pax. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)

Agasias

(235 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀγασίας; Agasías) [German version] [1] Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus From Stymphalus. Lochagos in the mercenary army of the younger Cyrus, friend of Xenophon, who praises A. for his courageous demeanour, bravery in battle and resolute advocacy for his own soldiers (cf. especially Xen. An. 6,6,7 ff.). Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [2] Sculptor from Ephesus, 1st cent. BC Son of Menophilus, sculptor from Ephesus. In the early 1st cent. BC, created portrait statues for Romans in Delos and in Tenos, according to base inscript…

Gunthamundus

(60 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
[German version] Son of Gentunis, king of the Vandals in AD 484-496 (Iord. Get. 170; Procop. Vand. 1,8,6f.), fought successfully against the Moors. In 491 his attempt to reconquer Sicily failed (Ennod. Panegyricus 70). He showed tolerance to the Catholics after initially persecuting them. PLRE 2, 525f. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) Bibliography H.-J. Diesner, Das Vandalenreich, 1966, 84-88.

Callias

(1,877 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Καλλίας; Kallías, Ion. Καλλίης; Kallíēs). Common Attic name from the 6th -- 4th cent. BC, especially in the rich priestly family (several dadouchoi) of the Ceryces, which was associated with the cult of Eleusis. C. appears there in alternation with  Hipponicus. Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Mythical son of the Heraclid Temenos Mythical son of the Heraclid  Temenus, king of Argos, and the brother of Agelaus, Eurypylus and  Hyrnetho. Since the king preferred Hyrnetho and her husband  Deiphontes to his sons, they had Temenus murder…
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