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(4,604 words)

Author(s): Hermsen, Edmund | Käppel, Lutz | Dautzenberg, Gerhard | Härle, Wilfried | Mokrosch, Reinhold
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Greco-Roman Antiquity – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics and Ethics – V. Practical Theology I. History of Religion The original meaning of the word, (divine) “joint knowledge, knowledge, consciousness, and self-consciousness” (Gk syneídēsis, Lat. conscientia), had already changed in antiquity to refer to an evaluative consciousness of one's own actions. Western philosophical and theological discourse formed various metaphors: the internal; the inner voiced ( daimónion; daimon), also interpreted as the voice …

Conscience Formation

(569 words)

Author(s): Mokrosch, Reinhold
[German Version] The terms conscience training and conscience formation are used interchangeably today. Following J.H. Jung-Stilling the two ( Gewissenserziehung and Gewissensbildung) were distinguished, however: conscience formation was associated with the formation of the temperament and the psyche (Gemüt), conscience training, in contrast, with the sharpening of reason and the will. I. Kant still distinguished between conscience cultivation and conscience training. Today, however, the …


(5,528 words)

Author(s): Großheim, Michael | Heesch, Matthias | Evers, Dirk | Mokrosch, Reinhold | Würtenberger, Thomas
[German Version] I. Philosophy The philosophical value concept is the result of a hypostatization of value predicates that are assigned to objects or circumstances as signs of human esteem. By way of inference, the evaluative assessment gives rise to a value, which is in turn meant to serve as a source of norms. R.H. Lotze developed the value concept in the mid-19th century, at a time when the upcoming natural sciences were increasingly challenging its claim to world interpretation. While Lotze relinquished the topics of “being,” of the indifferen…

Human Rights

(5,661 words)

Author(s): Steiner, Udo | Cancik, Hubert | Leppin, Volker | Wielandt, Rotraud | Mokrosch, Reinhold
[German Version] I. Concept and Terminology – II. History – III. Ethics – IV. Constitutional and International Law – V. Education I. Concept and Terminology In the usage of international law and national constitutional states, human rights are rights possessed by every individual (Human beings) by virtue of his or her humanity, independent of cultures, nationalities, and periods (universality). Their guiding principle is that of human dignity (inviolable, indisposable, inalienable). Guarantees of human rights can a…

Moral Education

(1,242 words)

Author(s): Mokrosch, Reinhold
[German Version] compromises the education with regard to values, norms, and virtues, and – as reflection on these – ethics. Values education (Value/Values) aims to provide guidance in the cognition and realization of life goals (terminal values), everyday standards (instrumental values), and valuation criteria. Norms education (Norms) aims at the assessment of behavioral patterns. Virtues education (Virtues) is concerned with the adoption of moral stances and capabilities. Ethics education stimul…