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Berenice

(1,483 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Βερενίκη; Bereníkē). [German version] [1] B. Maternal great niece of Antipater Born c. 340 BC as the daughter of Magas and Antigone, maternal great niece of Antipater [1]. Around 325, she married a certain Philippus, with whom she had two children: Antigone, later the wife of Pyrrhus, and Magas. Around 322, Antipater sent her (as a widow?) and his daughter Eurydice to Ptolemy I, who married Eurydice. B. quickly gained Ptolemy's respect, and bore him Arsinoe in 316, Ptolemy II in 308; other children of the …

Nicopolis

(1,739 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Burian, Jan (Prague) | Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Wirbelauer, Eckhard (Freiburg) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νικόπολις; Nikópolis). [German version] [1] Town on the upper Nestus river This item can be found on the following maps: | Moesi, Moesia Town on the upper Nestus river on the road from Philippopolis to the Aegean coast (Ptol. 3,11,13: Ν. ἡ περὶ Νέσσον; 8,11,7; Hierocles, Synekdemos 636,5), near modern Goce Delčev (Bulgaria), founded in AD 106 by Traianus. From the 2nd to 4th cents. AD, N. reached a high economic and cultural level (minting from Commodus to Caracalla: HN 287; thermal baths, peristyle buildings, sculpt…

Batanaea

(319 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] High plain, bordered to the west by the Golan Mountains (Γαυλανῖτις), to the north-west by Mount Hermon, to the north-east by the basalt desert of Laǧā (Τραχωνῖτις), to the south-east by the Ḥaurān Mountains (Αὐρανῖτις), and to the south by the river Yarmuk (Hieromykes) and its tributary wadis, thus occupying the same area as today's Nuqra. The name goes back to OT Bāšān (therefore Greek Βασάν; Basán and Βασανῖτις; Basanîtis). The dissolution of the Seleucid government in Syria and Palestine in the late 2nd cent. BC briefly brought B. under Nabataea…

Iambia

(115 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἰαμβία κώμη; Iambía kṓmē). Port town on the western coast of the Arabian peninsula, according to Ptolemy belonging to the territory of the Arsae (Ἄρσαι, Ptol. 6,7,3). I. is probably also identical with the island of Iambe, which, according to Plin. HN 6,168, lies off Berenice but is otherwise unknown. While the history of I. during the Hellenistic and Roman-Byzantine periods is largely unknown, the town achieved some importance under the Arab name of Yanbuʿ al-baḥr as the port of Medina (Ἰάθριππα; láthrippa/Yaṯrib), especially for pilgrim traffic. …

Capernaum

(472 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] City in  Galilaea on the north-west shore of the Sea of Galilee ( Tiberias). The Greek designation Καφαρναούμ ( Kapharnaoúm), in the NT in some variants also Καπερναούμ ( Kapernaoúm Mk 1,21), is derived from the Hebrew Kefar Naḥūm (village of Naḥūm) which appears in a Byzantine inscription found in the synagogue of Ḥammaṯ-Gāder. In later Jewish tradition, the name was changed to Kefar Tanḥūm or simply Tanḥūm, which in turn gave rise to the current Arab name Talḥūm (but not Tall Ḥūm as a derivation of Tall Naḥūm). Even though C. was inhabited from the 3rd millennium B…

Judah and Israel

(2,193 words)

Author(s): Liwak, Rüdiger (Berlin) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
I. Ancient Orient [German version] A. Definition Juda (= J.) and Israel (= I.) are names that, in the course of history, have displayed geographical, political, ethnic and theological components. J. was initially the name of a region in southern  Palaestina; later, it referred to the fictitious founding hero of a tribe and thus became the name of the tribe itself. J. became a political construct with David's kingdom (10th cent. BC). The name J. (in OT yhwdh, in Ancient Hebrew texts outside the OT yhd/yhwd, Assyrian ia-u/ ʾu-da-a-a, Babylonian ia-a-ḫu-du) possibly means ‘ Yahweh is v…

Beth Shearim

(159 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Place in Lower Galilee. With the relocation of the patriarch Jehuda ha-Nasi (from c. AD 175-217) B., as seat of the Sanhedrin and the rabbinic school, became for a short while the centre of Palestinian Judaism but gradually declined in importance after the transfer to Tiberias of the patriarchate and its institutions around the middle of the 3rd cent. In the succession to Rabbi Jehuda B. developed into the most important burial site in Palestine in the 3rd and 4th cents., as attested by the sp…

Amida

(141 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Sassanids | Syria | Byzantium | Xenophon | Asia Minor | Limes (Arab. Āmid, mod. Diyarbakır). Though virtually undocumented between the Hellenistic period and its fortification by Constantius II [1. 323; 2. 136 f.], A. subsequently achieved military and economic significance as a frontier town [3. 220 f., 240] and became a centre of Syrian monasticism in the 5th cent. However, after a short Sassanid occupation (503-506) it suffered from border warfare and J…

Malatha

(193 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Μάλαθα; Málatha, Jos. Ant. Iud. 18,147; Moleatha, Not. Dign. Or. 34,45), modern Arabic Tall al-Milḥ (‘salt hill) or Hebrew Tel Malḥatā; settlement situated in the centre of the Beeršeba Basin in north-eastern Negev at the confluence of two Wadis. Because of the wealth of wells in the erea, a major fortified settlement was already established in the Middle Bronze Age, part of a southern defence line. Destroyed by the Egyptians and obviously restored in the 10th cent. BC under Solomon, M…

Arabia

(955 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) | Dietrich, Albert (Göttingen)
[German version] Although A. owes its name to the word arab (Bedouins), the majority of its population was always sedentary. However, favourable climatic conditions for agriculture only existed in the south-western A. highland and large oases such as  Yat̄rib/Medina (Ḥiǧāz) and al-Yamāma in the East. Classical geography distinguished between A. deserta, which extended from southern Syria to the northern Ḥiǧāz, and A. felix, the southern part of the A. peninsula. The tripartite classification of Ptolemy, which added A. petraea, did not establish itself [1]. Since the earliest t…

Galilaea

(427 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Most northern region of  Palaestina. Under Ptolemaic rule ( Ptolemaeus) after the death of  Alexander [4] the Great, together with all of Palestine, G. became a Seleucid territory at the beginning of the 2nd cent. BC. Urbanization, and the  Hellenization that came along with it, resulted in an antagonism between the Hellenized cities and the Judaism in rural G. In 164 BC, in the context of the Maccabaean ( Judas Maccabaeus) rebellion against the Seleucids and the Hellenistic citie…

Neapolis

(2,079 words)

Author(s): von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Et al.
(Νέα πόλις/ Néa pólis, Νεάπολις/ Neápolis, ‘New City’). [German version] [1] Town on the northern coast of the Aegean This item can be found on the following maps: | Macedonia, Macedones | Moesi, Moesia Town on the northern coast of the Aegean to the west of the mouth of the Nestus river, across from the island of Thasos, modern Kavalla (Str. 7a,1,36; Ps.-Scyl. 67), probably a Thasian colony but the exact period of foundation is unknown. Early in the 6th cent. BC, autonomous silver coinage modelled on that of Eretria [1] (HN 196…

Emmaus

(216 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] [1] City situated at c. 30 km distance to Jerusalem (Ἐμμαοῦς; Emmaoûs, Arabic Amwās). City situated c. 30 km north-west of Jerusalem. In 166/5 BC  Judas Maccabeus defeated the  Seleucids at E.. In the Jewish War  Vespasian stationed the 5th Legion there. Re-founded at the start of the 3rd cent. AD at the time of Iulius Africanus, E. was given the name Nicopolis. From the 4th cent. to the period of the Crusades E. was considered to be the place where the resurrected Jesus appeared to two disciples (Lk 24, 13). Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) [German version] [2] Settlement sit…

Lydda

(364 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Syria | Christianity | Hasmonaeans | Pilgrimage (Λύδδα/ Lýdda, Hellenized form of Hebrew Lod, derived from it Arab. Ludd). City in Palestine, south-east of Jaffa ( Ioppe) on the edge of the coastal plain on the road to Jerusalem. L. is first mentioned in the list of Palestinian cities conquered by Thutmosis III in the 15th cent. BC. The founding of L., which is ascribed to the tribe of Benjamin in 1 Chr 8:12, possibly goes back to the resettlement of the city in…

Adoulis

(88 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: India, trade with Situated on the Arabian Gulf, A. was for a long time the only port town in the Axum kingdom. The export of high quality ivory ran through A., while textiles and metal goods were imported from Egypt and India (Peripl. M. Eryth. §§ 4 and 6). A. later became a Christian town, but appears to have been destroyed in the 7th/8th cents. Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography E. Littmann, s. v. Adule, RE Suppl. 7, 1 f.

Palaestina

(1,106 words)

Author(s): Podella, Thomas (Lübeck) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] I. Name, geography, early history The Latin name P. originated from Greek Παλαιστίνη ( Palaistínē); the latter originated from Aramaic pelištaīn and Hebrew pelištīm, which was originally used to describe the settlement area of the Philistines in the south of the Near Eastern Mediterranean coast between Gaza and Carmel (likewise Egyptian prst/ pw-r-s-ṯ, 'foreign land of Philistaea', and Palaistínē in Hdt. 1,105; 3,5; 91; 7,89). P. was also mentioned as KUR pa-la-as-tú  in Neo-Assyrian sources since Adad-nirārī III (811-783 BC). The designation P. pa…

Gophna

(92 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] Town c. 22 km north of Jerusalem on the Roman trade route to Neapolis, the modern Arabic Ǧifnā. At the time of  Herod, G. was the chief town of one of the eleven Jewish toparchies. In 44 BC,  Cassius sold the inhabitants of G. into slavery because they were not able to raise the tribute demanded. Mark Antony rescinded this measure shortly thereafter. Vespasian conquered the city in AD 69 during the course of the First Jewish War. Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin) Bibliography M. Avi-Yonah, E. Orni, s.v. Gofnah, Encyclopaedia Judaica 7, 691.

Bethlehem

(429 words)

Author(s): Köckert, Matthias (Berlin) | Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
This item can be found on the following maps: Pilgrimage [German version] A. Early history (Arab bait-laḥm; Βητλέεμ ( Bētléem; NT); Βαιτλεεμ ( Baitleem; LXX); Βητλέμα, Βηθλεέμη (Bētléma, Bēthleémē; Ios.); Hebrew bēt-leẹm ‘House of Bread’); located about 8 km south of Jerusalem on the important communication route between Jerusalem and Hebron on fertile land at the edge of the desert. The interpretation of the place name as a derivation from a goddess named Lachama is improbable [1]. Archaeologically attested from the Iron Ag…

Sychem

(283 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Hebrew šḵæm; Συχεμ, cf. Gn 12:6, Latin Sychem). City in Samaria c. 2 km to the southeast of Nāblus between the mountains of Ebal and Garizim on the hill of Tall Balāṭa and today partly covered by an Arab village called Balāṭa. S. acquired strategic and economic significance because of its location at a central junction in the road network of Samaria. Settled by 3500 BC, S. was attacked and destroyed by Egypt several times in the 2nd millennium. After the death of Solomon [1], the elect…

Sepphoris

(393 words)

Author(s): Pahlitzsch, Johannes (Berlin)
[German version] (Σέπφωρις/ Sépphōris, cf. Jos. Ant. Iud. 14,5,9 et passim) a city in Galilaea, on the east-west link between Ptolemais [8] (Akko) and Tiberias. Settled by the Iron Age, S. was heavily fortified under Alexander [16] Iannaeus c. 100 BC. Presumably,  S. was the most important city of Galilaea even before the institution of one of the five synhedria as the government of Judaea by the Roman governor Gabinius [I 2] in 57 BC. In 37 BC it fell to Herodes [1]. After his death in 4 BC there was unrest, which was suppressed by…
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