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Koson

(108 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] Gold coins with the legend ΚΟΣΩΝ, known since the Renaissance, found only in Transylvania (Romania); they elicit varying interpretations to the present day. Presumably they are to be attributed to a Geto-Dacian king Koson/Cotiso in the second half of the 1st cent. BC (cf. Suet. Aug. 63,2; Flor. Epit. 2,28). Some doubt the authenticity of the coins [2]. PIR2 C 1536; 1544. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography 1 O. Iliescu, Sur les monnaies d'or à la légende ΚΟΣΩΝ, in: Quaderni Ticinesi 19, 1990, 185-214 2 C. Preda, Ein neuer Vorschlag zur Chronologie der K.-Münzen, in: U. Pet…

Cavarus, Cauarus

(157 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Καύαρος; Kaúaros). Last king of the Celtic realm in East Thrace with capital in  Tyle in the late 3rd cent. BC (Pol. 4,46,4). Numerous finds of bronze coins, of which several nominals and types were issued, caused a renewed discussion of the location and nature of his kingdom in recent research [1. 7-15; 2]. C.'s silver coins were minted in  Cabyle [3]. Polybius praised C.'s achievements: he safeguarded merchant shipping in the Black Sea, supported Byzantium in 220 BC in a war against Rhodes and effected a peace (Pol. 4,52,1-2; 8,22). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography 1…

Scyles

(114 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Σκύλης/ Ský l ēs). Scythian King around the mid 5th cent. BC, son of a Greek woman from Istros and of Ariapeithes whose realm he inherited. However, due to his Greek way of life, S. was forced to flee to Sitalces [1] who turned him over to S.' half-brother Octamasades, who had S. put to death (Hdt. 4,78-80). The name of S. has been transmitted on a gold ring. Several bronze emissions from Niconia are attributed to S. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography V. A. Anochin, Die Münzen der skythischen Könige, in: Hamburger Beitrage zur Archäologie 18, 1991, 141-150 (esp. 142-144)  F.…

Polemocratia

(71 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Πολεμοκρατεία/ Polemokrateía, also Πολεμοκρατία/ Polemokratía). Thracian queen, wife of Sadalas II and mother of Cotys [I 6] (IGR I 775); in 43 BC, she handed over the family fortune to M. Iunius [I 10] Brutus in order to rescue Cotys and have his kingdom restored to him (App. B Civ. 4,75,319-320). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography R. D. Sullivan, Thrace in the Eastern Dynastic Network, in: ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 186-211, esp. 192.

Hegesipyle

(47 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἡγησιπύλη; Hēgēsipýlē). Daughter of King Olorus of Thrace. Married  Miltiades [2] in c. 515-513 BC and bore him a child  Cimon (Hdt. 6,39,2; Plut. Cimon 4,1). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography C. Feretto, Milziade ed Egesipile. Un matrimonio d'interesse, in: Serta Historica Antiqua [1], 1986, 77-83.

Mostis

(106 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Μόστις/ Móstis). King, who probably ruled the Caeni in southeastern Thrace in the last quarter of the 2nd/beginning of the 1st cent. BC (earlier dating refuted). He is known only through tetradrachmai attesting to a 38 year reign, bronze coins and two inscriptions (BE 1972, 284; Moretti 2, 116; SEG XXXIV 696 and XXXVII 602; [3. 190]). He may have been a confederate of Mithradates [6] VI. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography 1 F. de Callataÿ, L'histoire des guerres Mithridatiques vue par les monnaies, 1997, 258-259 2 J. Jurukova, Monetite na trakijskite plemena i…

Ateas

(141 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀτέας; Atéas; Lat. Atheas, on silver coins ΑΤΑΙΟΣ). Scythian king, who in 339 BC at an age of more than 90 years fell in battle against the Macedonian Philip II near the Ister (Lucian Macr. 12,10). Designated by Strabo (7,3,18) as ruler over large sections of the Barbarians on the northern coast of the Black Sea, but the extent of his power is disputed. The minting of A. in Callatis and the conflicts with the  Triballi (Frontin. Strat. 2,4,20; Polyaenus, Strat. 7,44,1), Byzantium (C…

Ariapeithes

(85 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀριαπείθης; Ariapeíthēs). King of the Scythian, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC, murdered by Spargapeithes, the king of the Agathyrsi. He had three sons from his three marriages: with the daughter of the Thracian ruler Teres  Octamasades, with a Greek woman from Histria  Scyles and with the Scythian woman Opoea Oricus. Thymnes, the confidant of A., was an oral source of Herodotes (Hdt. 4,76-80). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography J. R. Gardiner-Garden, Dareios' Scythian Expedition and its Aftermath, in: Klio 69, 1987, 326-350, 345-349.

Thagimasades

(45 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Θαγιμασάδης/ Thagimasádēs, also Θαγιμασάδας/ Thagimasádas). Presumed ancestor and protector of the 'Royal' Scythae (Scythae II.); they alone worshipped T. as a horse and water deity, which was identified with the Greek Poseidon (Hdt. 4,59). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography S. S. Bessonova, Religioznye predstavlenija skifov, 1983, 50-53.

Teres

(234 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Τήρης; Tḗrēs). Popular Thracian (ruler's) name. [German version] [1] T. (I) The first powerful Thracian king, who, after the retreat of the Persians in the first half of the 5th cent. BC, obtained for the Odrysae dominion over the largest part of Thrace (Thuc. 2,29). In the southeast he advanced presumably as far as the Propontis  (cf. Xen. An. 7,2,22), in the north as far as the Danube. His daughter married king Ariapeithes of the Scythae (Hdt. 4,80). He lived 92 years (Theop. FGrH 115, fr. 310) and was …

Octamasades

(93 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὀκταμασάδες; Oktamasádes). King of the Scythae, known through Herodotus (4,80), son of Ariapeithes and of a daughter of the Odrysian king Teres. In about the mid-5th cent. BC, O. succeeded as ruler his half-brother Scyles, who after being deposed had fled to the Thracian king Sitalces, whose brother had in turn sought refuge with O. The Thracian-Scythian conflict was resolved peacefully through an exchange of prisoners; after being handed over, Scyles was immediately killed by O. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography Z.H. Archibald, The Odrysian Kingdom of Thra…

Medocus

(154 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Μήδοκος/Mḗdokos). Appearing as Μήτοκος/Mḗ́tokos on silver and bronze coins, in ancient and modern literature also known as Ἀμά- or respectively Ἀμήδοκος ( Amá- or Amḗdokos, I or the Elder, Isoc. Or. 5,6; Harpocr. s.v. Ἀμάδοκος). Odrysian king (Xen. An. 7,2,32; 7,3; 7,11) c. 410/05 to c. 387 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,94,2), successor to Seuthes I. His residence was presumably located on the upper course of the Hebrus (Xen. An. 7,3,16-17). He was a friend of Alcibiades [3] (Diod. Sic. 13,105,3). M. supported his co-ruler Seuthes II (…

Sitalces

(217 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Σιτάλκης/ Sitálkēs). [German version] [1] King of Thrace, second half of the 5th cent. BC King of Thrace in the second half of the 5th cent. BC, son of Teres, the founder of the Odrysae kingdom, brother of Sparadocus. The Thracian-Scythian conflict with his nephew Octamasades was resolved by S. handing over Scyles. In 431 BC his brother-in-law Nymphodorus from Abdera mediated a treaty between S. and Athens and one between Perdiccas [2] and Athens (Thuc. 2,29; cf. Aristoph. Ach. 141-153; Diod. Sic. 12,50,3; St…

Cersobleptes

(276 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Cersebleptes). Thracian king known to ancient authors as Κερσοβλέπτης ( Kersobléptēs, in inscriptions (e.g. Syll.3 195 = FdD III 1, 392) and on a vessel of the hoard find of Rogozen [1. 197 no. 15] Κερσεβλέπτης ( Kersebléptēs). His small bronze coins bear the legend ΚΕΡ ( KER). C. followed his father  Cotys [I 1] I, to power in 360 BC (Dem. Or. 23,163). He attempted to maintain Odrysian power on the  Chersonesus and, therefore, engaged in a permanent conflict with Athens that was marked by varying success. C. received active …

Sadalas

(282 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Σαδάλας). [English version] [1] König der Odrysai 87/6-80/79 v. Chr. König der Odrysai 87/6-80/79 v. Chr., Nachfolger von Kotys [I 4]. S. unterstützte Cornelius [I 90] Sulla gegen Mithradates [6] VI. bei Chaironeia (Cic. Verr. 2,1,63; [1. 258; 318; 337; 2. 114; 3]). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) [English version] [2] König der Odrysai 45/4-42 v. Chr. Enkel von S. [1], König der Odrysai 45/4-42 v. Chr., der im J. 48 im Auftrag seines Vaters Kotys [I 5] Pompeius [I 3] d.Gr. bei Pharsalos unterstützte (Caes. civ. 3,4,3); S. wird der Sieg über L. Cassius …

Barsabas

(44 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[English version] (Βαρσάβας). Sapäischer Dynast, Mitte des 2.Jh. v.Chr. Nahm am Feldzug des Andriskos nach Makedonien teil (Diod. 32,15,7). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography Ch.M. Danov, Die Thraker auf dem Ostbalkan von der hell. Zeit bis zur Gründung Konstantinopels, ANRW II 7.1, 1979, 21-185.

Hegesipyle

(43 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἡγησιπύλη). Tochter des Königs Oloros von Thrakien. Heiratete ca. 515-513 v.Chr. Miltiades und gebar ihm Kimon (Hdt. 6,39,2; Plut. Kimon 4,1). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography C. Feretto, Milziade ed Egesipile. Un matrimonio d'interesse, in: Serta Historica Antiqua [1], 1986, 77-83.

Abrupolis

(99 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[English version] (Ἀβρούπολις). Dynast der thrak. Sapaioi östl. des Nestos und nördl. von Abdera; überschritt 179 v. Chr. die maked. Grenze bis Amphipolis, erbeutete Minen im Pangaion, wurde von Perseus zurückgeschlagen und aus seinem Land vertrieben. Die Forderung Roms 172 nach Wiedereinsetzung seines socius et amicus diente als ein Vorwand für den 3. Maked. Krieg (Syll.3 643; Pol. 22,18,2-3; Diod. 29,33; Liv. 42,13,5; 40,5; 41,10-11; App. Mac. 11; Paus. 7,10,6). Thrak. Namensform, Ἀβλουπορις bekannt aus 2 Inschr. 80 v. Chr. (Sherk, Nr. 20; 21), die einen thrak. …

Mostis

(99 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[English version] (Μόστις). König, der im letzten Viertel des 2. Jh./Anf. des 1. Jh.v.Chr. (frühere Datier. widerlegt) im südöstl. Thrakien verm. über die Kainoi herrschte und nur durch Tetradrachmen, die eine 38jährige Regierungszeit bezeugen, und Br.-Mz. sowie durch zwei Inschr. (BE 1972, 284; Moretti 2, 116; SEG XXXIV 696 und XXXVII 602; [3. 190]) bekannt ist. Er war vielleicht Bundesgenosse Mithradates' [6] VI. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography 1 F. de Callataÿ, L'histoire des guerres Mithridatiques vue par les monnaies, 1997, 258-259 2 J. Jurukova, Monetite na tra…

Bergaios

(65 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[English version] Thrak. Dynast Ende 5./Anf. 4.Jh. v.Chr. Bekannt nur durch seine Silber- und Bronzeprägung mit den Legenden ΒΕΡΓΑΙΟΥ und ΒΕΡΓ (auch als Stadt- bzw. Beamtenname interpretiert). Parallelen zu thasischen Münzbildern legen eine Lokalisierung im Südwesten Thrakiens am unteren Nestos nahe. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography HN 283  J.Jurukova, M. Domaradski, Nov centǎr na trakijskata kultura - s. Vetren, Pazardžiško, in: Numizmatika 3, 1990, 3-19.
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