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(217 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Σιτάλκης/ Sitálkēs). [German version] [1] King of Thrace, second half of the 5th cent. BC King of Thrace in the second half of the 5th cent. BC, son of Teres, the founder of the Odrysae kingdom, brother of Sparadocus. The Thracian-Scythian conflict with his nephew Octamasades was resolved by S. handing over Scyles. In 431 BC his brother-in-law Nymphodorus from Abdera mediated a treaty between S. and Athens and one between Perdiccas [2] and Athens (Thuc. 2,29; cf. Aristoph. Ach. 141-153; Diod. Sic. 12,50,3; St…


(276 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Cersebleptes). Thracian king known to ancient authors as Κερσοβλέπτης ( Kersobléptēs, in inscriptions (e.g. Syll.3 195 = FdD III 1, 392) and on a vessel of the hoard find of Rogozen [1. 197 no. 15] Κερσεβλέπτης ( Kersebléptēs). His small bronze coins bear the legend ΚΕΡ ( KER). C. followed his father  Cotys [I 1] I, to power in 360 BC (Dem. Or. 23,163). He attempted to maintain Odrysian power on the  Chersonesus and, therefore, engaged in a permanent conflict with Athens that was marked by varying success. C. received active …


(91 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] One of the Scythian kings of Scythia Minor (Dobrudža) in the late 3rd/2nd cents. who became known for the coins they apparently issued in Tomis, Callatis, Dionysopolis and Odessus. C. minted several types and nominals of bronze coins while being referred to as the king of the Scythians in a decree from Odessus (CIG 2, 2056; IGBulg I2, 41; Moretti, 124). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography K. Regling, Charaspes, in: Corolla Numismatica, 1906, 259-265 J. Youroukova, Nouvelles données sur la chronologie des rois scythes en Dobrudža, in: Thracia 4, 1977, 105-121.


(1,722 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Schneider, Helmuth (Kassel) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Et al.
(Σίμων/ Símōn). [German version] [1] Sculptor in bronze from Aegina, c. 480-460 BC Sculptor in bronze from Aegina. S. participated with a horse and a charioteer in the votive offerings dedicated by Phormis at Olympia; accordingly, his period of artistic activity is around 480-460 BC. The base which belonged to it has been identified. A dog and an archer by S. (Plin. HN 34,90) probably formed a further group. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, nos. 402, 437  M. Zuppa, s.v. S. 2, EAA 7, 1966, 315  F. Eckstein, Anathemata, 1969, 43-49  E. Walter-Karydi, Die äginetische Bi…


(69 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Σπαράδοκος; Sparádokos). Brother of king  Sitalces [1] of Thrace and father of his successor Seuthes [1] (Thuc. 2,101,5; 4,101,5). His position in the Odrysae dynasty is debatable; he may have succeeded to Teres as ruler in southwestern Thrace. S. was the first of the Odrysae to mint silver coins of various face values. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography U. Peter, Die Münzen der thrakischen Dynasten (5.-3. Jh. v. Chr.), 1997, 62-75.


(124 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Κετρίπορις; Ketríporis). Thracian king, who followed his father  Berisades together with his brothers as rulers of western Thrace. They were supported by the Greek mercenary leader  Athenodorus [1] (Dem. Or. 23,10) and in 356 BC concluded -- together with Lyppeus of Paeonia and Grabus of Illyria -- an alliance with Athens against  Philippus II (IG II/III2 127; Syll.3 1, 196; StV 309; Tod 157) [1. 27]. However, the coalition was unsuccessful and C. became a vassal of the Macedonian king (Diod. Sic. 16,22,3). C. issued very beautiful b…


(191 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Δρομιχαίτης; Dromichaítēs; in Oros. 3,23,52 Dori or Doricetis). Ruler of the Getae at the end of the 4th/beginning of the 3rd cent. BC. Bitter political rival of  Lysimachus, who undertook two campaigns against D. probably in 297 and between 293-291 (chronology disputed); D. captured Lysimachus' son Agathocles [5] and then Lysimachus himself but released them both, in exchange for their withdrawal from conquered territories north of the Ister and for the pledge of marriage between…


(59 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὄλορος; Óloros). King of Thrace in the 2nd half of the 6th century BC, mentioned by Herodotus (6,39,2; 6,41,2) and Plutarch (Cimon 4,1); his daughter Hegesipyle married Miltiades [2]. O. probably ruled the Thracian Chersonesus [1]; the extension of his territory is controversial. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography Z.H. Archibald, The Odrysian Kingdom of Thrace, 1998, 80, 113-114.


(293 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Σαδάλας; Sadálas). [German version] [1] King of the Odrysae, 87/86-80/79 BC King of the Odrysae in 87/86-80/79 BC, successor of Cotys [I 4]. Sadalas supported Cornelius [I 90] Sulla against Mithradates [6] VI at Chaeronea (Cic. Verr. 2,1,63; [1. 258; 318; 337; 2. 114; 3]). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) [German version] [2] King of the Odrysae, 45/44-42 BC Grandson of Sadalas [1], king of the Odrysae in 45/44-42 BC, who supported Pompeius [I 3] the Great at Pharsalus by order of his father Cotys [I 5] (Caes. B Civ. 3,4,3); Sadalas is attributed with the …


(162 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Ἀμάδοκος; Amádokos, on coins ΑΜΑΤΟΚΟΣ; AMATOKOS). [German version] [1] see Medocus The elder A. named by Isocrates (or. 5,6) is known as  Medocus (see there), Metocus, Amedocus, Amadocus. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) [German version] [2] Odrysian ruler (after 358 AD) Odrysian ruler, one of the successors of  Cotys I, who in 358 BC received the middle part of the kingdom (IG II/III2 126; Dem. Or. 23,8; 170; 173 [1. 303]). His brothers-in-law, Simon and Bianor, honorary citizen of Athens, helped A. after 354 in conflict with  Cersebleptes as mercenary commander…


(58 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Μαισάδης; Maisádēs). Odrysian prince who at the end of the 4th cent. BC, under the supreme rule of Seuthes I, reigned over the regions of the Melandites, Thynians and Tranipsians, the so-called Thracian delta. After his death his son Seuthes II was brought up by Medocus (Xen. An. 7,2,32; 7,5,1). Odrysae Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)


(156 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Μιλτοκύθης; Miltokýthēs). [German version] [1] Leader of Thracian mercenaries at the Battle of Cunaxa, 401 BC Thracian leader of mercenaries under Cyrus [3] the Younger, defected to the side of the Great King Artaxerxes [2] II after the Battle of Cunaxa in 401 BC (Xen. an. 2,2,7). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) [German version] [2] Thracian aristocrat, around 362 BC Thracian aristocrat, treasurer (?) of Cotys [I 1] I, with whom he broke around 362 BC, seizing the Hieron oros [1]. M. sought the aid of Athens, but the diplomatic skill of Cotys I thwarted the co…


(83 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] Thracian dynast at the end of the 5th/beginning of the 4th cent. BC. Known only through his bronze and silver minting with the markings ΒΕΡΓΑΙΟΥ and ΒΕΡΓ (also interpreted as the name of a city or an official). Parallels with Thasian coin designs suggest a location in the south-west of Thrace by the lower course of the Nestus. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography HN 283 J. Jurukova, M. Domaradski, Nov centǎr na trakijskata kultura - s. Vetren, Pazardžiško, in: Numizmatika 3, 1990, 3-19.


(141 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀτέας; Atéas; Lat. Atheas, on silver coins ΑΤΑΙΟΣ). Scythian king, who in 339 BC at an age of more than 90 years fell in battle against the Macedonian Philip II near the Ister (Lucian Macr. 12,10). Designated by Strabo (7,3,18) as ruler over large sections of the Barbarians on the northern coast of the Black Sea, but the extent of his power is disputed. The minting of A. in Callatis and the conflicts with the  Triballi (Frontin. Strat. 2,4,20; Polyaenus, Strat. 7,44,1), Byzantium (C…


(85 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ἀριαπείθης; Ariapeíthēs). King of the Scythian, 1st half of the 5th cent. BC, murdered by Spargapeithes, the king of the Agathyrsi. He had three sons from his three marriages: with the daughter of the Thracian ruler Teres  Octamasades, with a Greek woman from Histria  Scyles and with the Scythian woman Opoea Oricus. Thymnes, the confidant of A., was an oral source of Herodotes (Hdt. 4,76-80). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography J. R. Gardiner-Garden, Dareios' Scythian Expedition and its Aftermath, in: Klio 69, 1987, 326-350, 345-349.


(45 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Θαγιμασάδης/ Thagimasádēs, also Θαγιμασάδας/ Thagimasádas). Presumed ancestor and protector of the 'Royal' Scythae (Scythae II.); they alone worshipped T. as a horse and water deity, which was identified with the Greek Poseidon (Hdt. 4,59). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography S. S. Bessonova, Religioznye predstavlenija skifov, 1983, 50-53.


(234 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Τήρης; Tḗrēs). Popular Thracian (ruler's) name. [German version] [1] T. (I) The first powerful Thracian king, who, after the retreat of the Persians in the first half of the 5th cent. BC, obtained for the Odrysae dominion over the largest part of Thrace (Thuc. 2,29). In the southeast he advanced presumably as far as the Propontis  (cf. Xen. An. 7,2,22), in the north as far as the Danube. His daughter married king Ariapeithes of the Scythae (Hdt. 4,80). He lived 92 years (Theop. FGrH 115, fr. 310) and was …


(93 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Ὀκταμασάδες; Oktamasádes). King of the Scythae, known through Herodotus (4,80), son of Ariapeithes and of a daughter of the Odrysian king Teres. In about the mid-5th cent. BC, O. succeeded as ruler his half-brother Scyles, who after being deposed had fled to the Thracian king Sitalces, whose brother had in turn sought refuge with O. The Thracian-Scythian conflict was resolved peacefully through an exchange of prisoners; after being handed over, Scyles was immediately killed by O. Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) Bibliography Z.H. Archibald, The Odrysian Kingdom of Thra…


(154 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
[German version] (Μήδοκος/Mḗdokos). Appearing as Μήτοκος/Mḗ́tokos on silver and bronze coins, in ancient and modern literature also known as Ἀμά- or respectively Ἀμήδοκος ( Amá- or Amḗdokos, I or the Elder, Isoc. Or. 5,6; Harpocr. s.v. Ἀμάδοκος). Odrysian king (Xen. An. 7,2,32; 7,3; 7,11) c. 410/05 to c. 387 BC (Diod. Sic. 14,94,2), successor to Seuthes I. His residence was presumably located on the upper course of the Hebrus (Xen. An. 7,3,16-17). He was a friend of Alcibiades [3] (Diod. Sic. 13,105,3). M. supported his co-ruler Seuthes II (…


(282 words)

Author(s): Peter, Ulrike (Berlin)
(Σαδάλας). [English version] [1] König der Odrysai 87/6-80/79 v. Chr. König der Odrysai 87/6-80/79 v. Chr., Nachfolger von Kotys [I 4]. S. unterstützte Cornelius [I 90] Sulla gegen Mithradates [6] VI. bei Chaironeia (Cic. Verr. 2,1,63; [1. 258; 318; 337; 2. 114; 3]). Peter, Ulrike (Berlin) [English version] [2] König der Odrysai 45/4-42 v. Chr. Enkel von S. [1], König der Odrysai 45/4-42 v. Chr., der im J. 48 im Auftrag seines Vaters Kotys [I 5] Pompeius [I 3] d.Gr. bei Pharsalos unterstützte (Caes. civ. 3,4,3); S. wird der Sieg über L. Cassius …
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