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(3,263 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Wachter, Rudolf (Basle) | Rives, James B. (Toronto)
[German version] I. Definition Writing is understood to be a set of signs for the visual preservation of human language. Within cultural history, creating and employing writing require (1) its usability, (2) a considerable degree of language analysis and (3) a triggering idea. Since writing can be mastered effortlessly even by six-year-olds and - once in existence - can be used for the most varied cultural purposes, the decisive factor for the moment of its invention is the idea. However, one should…

Moon deities

(1,252 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin)
[German version] I. General The status of the moon in ancient mythological speculation and cult worship reflected its central position in the calendar cycles, agricultural cycles and monthly cycles with respect to their various aspects. The moon (personified) could be the addressee of the cult; the cult also included the male and female deities embedded in the traditional panthea and associated with the moon as moon deities (MD) with regard to their particular aspect. Whilst e.g. Selene/Luna just li…


(93 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ναβουριανός; Nabourianós). According to Poseidonius (transmitted in Str. 16,1,6), N. was said to have been, with Cidenas and Sudines, one of the Babylonian scholars whose accurate observations of the lunar cycle and positions of the sun were expanded by the Greeks into ‘System A’ and made the basis of mathematical astronomy. He is probably identical with a Nabû-rīmannu who presumably lived around 500 BC and whose name is found e.g. in the colophon of a Babylonian moon table. Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) Bibliography P. Schnabel, Berossos und die babylonisch-hel…


(105 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[German version] (Νίτωκρις/ Nítōkris). According to Hdt. 1,185-187, Babylonian queen, wife of one Labynetus and mother of a king of the same name. She is said to have dammed up the Euphrates, built a bridge over the river in Babylon and to have her tomb above one of the city gates. These legends probably combine information about buildings of Nebuchadnezzar II and legends about Semiramis (cf. Jos. Ap. 1,20) with stories about Aadad-ḫappe, the mother of king Nabonidus. Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Röllig, Nitokris von Babylon, in: R.Stiehl, H.E. Stier (ed.), Festschrif…


(223 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Xenophon (Θάψακος/ T hápsakos; Latin Thapsacus). City in Syria, on the west bank of the Euphrates [2], important river port and Euphrates crossing (Semitic tiphsaḥ, 'crossing, ford'), first mentioned in 1 Kings 5,4 as a (fictional) border town in the northeast of Solomon's kingdom. It was at T. that Cyrus [3] the Younger crossed the Euphrates (Xen. An. 1,4,11 and 17 f.); a little later, as nauarchos, Conon [1] came to T., 20 days travel from the Cilician Gates [1] (Diod. Sic. 14,21,5), from where the river …


(627 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Tausend, Sabine | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
(Τρίπολις/ Trípolis; literally, 'triple city'). [German version] [1] Perrhaebic T. The three cities of Azorus, Doliche and Pythium [2] in the small valley south of the Titarus and west of the Olympus [1] were referred to as the 'Perrhaebic T.' The locations of the cities are attested archaeologically, some in inscriptions as well. Up to the 3rd cent. BC, the T. belonged to the Macedonian Elimiotis, then to the alliance of the Perrhaebi and therefore to Thessalia. Literary documentation of T. exists only for the 3rd Macedonian War in 171 BC (Liv. 42,53,6; 42,67,7). Kramolisch, Herwig (Epp…


(286 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum)
(Θεοδοσιόπολις/ Theodosiópolis, Θεοδοσιούπολις/ Theodosioúpolis). [German version] [1] Modern Ras al-Ain, Syria T. in Osroene (in northern Mesopotamia), according to Procop. BP 2,19,29 (cf. Aed. 2,2,16) on the Ḫabur about 40 miles (= 60 km) from Dara, the village of Resaeina (= Ras al-Ain at the source of the Ḫabur) elevated c. AD 383 by Theodosius [2] I to a city (Malalas 13,40 p. 345 Dindorf). Iustinianus [1] I further increased the fortification of T., which was situated at the end of the Byzantine Limes (VI. C.), with forts (Procop. A…


(263 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
(Ἰθόβαλος; Ithóbalos, Εἰθώβαλος; Eithṓbalos and similar, Phoenician ʾittōbaʿal, Baʿal is with him). Name of various Phoenician princes. [German version] [1] King of Byblus around 1000 BC King of Byblus c. 1000 BC, known from his inscription on the sarcophagus of his father Aḥīrām (KAI no. 1). Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) [German version] [2] I. I of Tyre (and Sidon) Priest of Astarte, identical with Ethbaal, father of Jezebel, 9th cent. BC Priest of Astarte and - as a result of rebellions - sixth successor of Hiram I (Jos. Ap. 1,123). Definitely identical with Eth…

Phoenicians, Poeni

(8,121 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Berlin) | Müller, Walter W. (Marburg/Lahn) | Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[German version] I. Names and concept, sources The name and concept of the Phoínikes (Φοίνικες)/Phoenicians (= P.) were formed in the Greek world [1]. Those designated by it understood themselves primarily as citizens or members of a union of cities, e.g. as Tyrians, Sidonians or - after the shared cultural region - as Canaanites [2]. In this they were referring to a political or ethnic identity derived from the Ancient Near Eastern Bronze Age. The various designations can only be reconciled from case to cas…


(397 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[German version] [1] (title) see Satrap (Persian-Achaemenid title) see Satrap Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Graecized name of the Canaanite god Šadrapa' (Σατράπης/ Satrápēs; Σαδράπης/ Sadrápēs). Graecized name of the Canaanite god Šadrapa, worshipped from North Africa to Babylonia esp. in the Hellenistic-Roman period. The Greek form of the name, probably chosen in allusion to the Old Persian title ḫšaθra ('protector of the land'), is known from two inscriptions of Maād near Byblus (dated 8 BC and the…


(3,118 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Schönbeck, Hans-Peter (Halle/Saale)
[German version] I. Term and genre In antiquity the folk-tale as a well-defined literary genre with unequivocally established terminology was not known. However, since oral narratives, partly put down in writing, that according to the modern meaning of the term can undoubtedly be designated as folk-tales, existed in all ages and all cultures, the issue of the folk-tale becomes a meaningful and inevitable subject also with regard to antiquity. The German word ‘Märchen’ is derived from OHG māri, MHG diu/daz maere = ‘report’, ‘message’, i.e. ‘narrative’, still entirely in the …


(318 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[German version] (Σαγχουνιάθω/ Sanchouniáthō; Phoenician sknytn, 'Sakon has given'). Phoenician and source for Herennius Philo of Byblus (= P.), who used him for his Phoenician History (Euseb.: Φοινικικὴ Ἱστορία/ Phoinikikḕ Historía; Iohannes Lydus, Steph. Byz.: τὰ Φοινικικά), of which we know only through references in Eusebius [7] (Euseb. Praep. evang. 1,9,20-21; 10,9,12 ff. Mras = FGrH 790). S. is said to have lived at Beirut (Berytus, according to the Suda), Tyrus or Sidon (Ath. 3,100) even 'before the Trojan War', and h…


(83 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[English version] (Ναβουριανός). Nach Poseidonios (überl. bei Strab. 16,1,6) soll N. neben Kidenas und Sudines einer der babylon. Gelehrten gewesen sein, deren genaue Beobachtungen von Mondumläufen und Sonnenständen von den Griechen zum sog. “System A” ausgebaut und zur Grundlage der mathematischen Astronomie gemacht wurden. Er ist wohl identisch mit einem Nabû-rīmannu, der um 500 v.Chr. gelebt haben dürfte und dessen Name sich z.B. im Kolophon einer babylon. Mondtafel findet. Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) Bibliography P. Schnabel, Berossos und die babylon.-hell. Lit., …

Phönizier, Punier

(7,502 words)

Author(s): Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Eder, Walter (Bochum) | Müller, Hans-Peter (Münster)
[English version] I. Namen und Begriff, Quellen Name und Begriff der Phoínikes (Φοίνικες)/Phönizier (=Ph.) sind in der griech. Welt geprägt worden [1]. Die damit Bezeichneten verstanden sich selbst in erster Linie als Bürger/Angehörige eines städtischen Verbandes, z.B. als Tyrier, Sidonier oder - nach der gemeinsamen Kulturlandschaft - als Kanaanäer [2]. Sie bezogen sich damit auf eine aus der altvorderasiatischen Brz. tradierte polit. oder ethnische Identität. Die unterschiedlichen Bezeichnungen können nu…


(94 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
[English version] (Νίτωκρις). Nach Hdt. 1,185-187 babylonische Königin, Gattin eines Labynetos und Mutter eines gleichnamigen Königs. Sie soll den Euphrat abgedämmt, in Babylon eine Brücke über den Fluß geschlagen und ihr Grab über einem der Stadttore bekommen haben. Hierbei wurden wohl Nachrichten über Bauten Nebukadnezars II. und Legenden über Semiramis (vgl. Ios. c. Ap. 1,20) mit Erzählungen über Aadad-ḫappe, die Mutter des Königs Nabonadios (Nabonid), verquickt. Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Röllig, N. von Babylon, in: R.Stiehl, H.E. Stier (Hrsg.), FS. …


(252 words)

Author(s): Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen)
(Ἰθόβαλος, Εἰθώβαλος u.ä., phöniz. ittōbaal, “mit ihm ist Baal”). Name verschiedener phöniz. Fürsten. [English version] [1] König von Byblos um 1000 v. Chr. König von Byblos um 1000 v.Chr., bekannt aus seiner Inschr. auf dem Sarkophag seines Vaters Aḥīrām (KAI Nr. 1). Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) [English version] [2] I.I. von Tyros (und Sidon) Astartepriester, auch Ethbaal, Vater der Izebel, 9. Jh. v. Chr. Astartepriester und - durch Revolte - sechster Nachfolger Hirams I. (Ios. c. Ap. 1,123). Jedenfalls identisch mit Ethbaal, Vater der Izebel (1 Kg 16,…


(2,799 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | Haas, Volkert (Berlin) | Schönbeck, Hans-Peter (Halle/Saale)
[English version] I. Begriff und Gattung Die Ant. kennt das M. als wohldefinierte und terminologisch eindeutig festgelegte Lit.-Gattung nicht. Da es aber zu allen Zeiten und in allen Kulturen mündliche und z.T. auch schriftlich fixierte Erzählungen gegeben hat, die im heutigen Sinne des Terminus zweifellos als M. zu bezeichnen sind, wird die Frage nach dem M. auch für die Ant. zum sinnvollen und notwendigen Thema. Das dt. Wort “M.” leitet sich von ahd. māri, mhd. diu/daz maere = “Bericht”, “Nachricht” her, also “Erzählung”, und zwar noch ganz im Sinne einer Aussage über…


(1,060 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Röllig, Wolfgang (Tübingen) | von Lieven, Alexandra (Berlin)
[English version] I. Allgemeines Die Stellung des Mondes in der ant. myth. Spekulation und kultischen Verehrung reflektiert seine zentrale Position in den kalendarischen, agrarischen und Monatszyklen in ihren unterschiedlichen Aspekten. Adressat von Kult kann der (personifizierte) Mond sein; Kult gilt auch den in ihrem Aspekt als M. mit dem Mond assoziierten männl. oder weibl., in den traditionellen Panthea verankerten Gottheiten. Während z.B. Selene/Luna ebenso wie Helios/Sol in der öffentl. Rel. d…