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Feeling

(1,869 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Sarot, Marcel | Stock, Konrad | Schreiner, Martin
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Fundamental Theology – IV. Dogmatics – V. Ethics – VI. Practical Theology and Psychology of Religion I. Philosophy Feeling or sense (Lat. sensus, Fr. sentiment, Ger. Gefühl) is the direct sensate awareness of an inward state, in which a unique access to reality is articulated. Until well into the modern era, the term encompassed without distinction both sensory perceptions and emotions (affects, passions, moods). During the 18th century, feeling came to be defined more precisely in its cognitive, expressive-¶ evaluative, and orientative function, especially as aesthetic and moral feeling. The German Enlightenment gave feeling its due as a low-level epistemic capacity; countering the rationalism and materialism of the French Enlightenment, J.-J. Rousseau valued compassion and conscience as a residuum of uncorrupted human nature; drawing on the analogy of the role of taste in aesthetic judgment, the Anglo-Scottish school viewed moral judgment and action as arising from the “moral sense” of justice and …

Philosophy of Art

(1,685 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] Philosophy of Art, a subdivision of philosophical aesthetics (I), inquires into the properties and effects of art as the outstanding domain of aesthetic experience. The question (both practical and metaphysical) of the status and value of things fashioned by human beings in the totality of the world is exemplified in the case of art as the hermeneutical question of the conditions associated with the production and understanding of meaning (Hermeneutics). The philosophy of a…

Aesthetics

(1,902 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Schoberth, Wolfgang
[German Version] …

Philosophy of Culture

(986 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] Despite discussion of the problem of culture since antiquity, cultural philosophy is an acquisition of the modern era; it began as a radical criticism of culture in the 18th century. With their attention to everything made by humans (language, science, technology, political institutions, arts), J.-J. Rousseau and the direct contemporaries of the 18th-century Enlightenment and the 19th-century critique of the Enlightenment also emphasize the historicality of humanity. Rousseau assumes conformity with a law operating like a discernible law of nature: to ¶ the sam…

Culture

(7,222 words)

Author(s): Laubscher, Matthias Samuel | Moxter, Michael | Recki, Birgit | Haigis, Peter | Herms, Eilert | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Church History – III. Philosophy – IV. Fundamental Theology – V. Ethics – VI. Culture, Art, and Religion – VII. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies The word “culture” derives from Latin cultura, “tilling of land”; since antiquity it has been used metaphorically for

Irony

(667 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Köhler, Wiebke
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Practical Theology I. Philosophy Irony (from Gk εἰρωνεία/ eironeía, “dissimilation,” attested since the 4th cent. bce; Lat. dissimulatio) is disingenuous speech for the purpose of demonstrat…

Imagination

(2,195 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Linde, Gesche
[German Version] …

Transcendental Pragmatics

(402 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] is a term and concept developed by Karl-Otto Apel in the context of his conception of morality based on intersubjectivity; it denotes philosophical reflection on the validity conditions of argumentation. In transcendental pragmatics, a “transformation” of transcendental arguments takes place through a theory of linguistic and symbolic action: in the transcendental philosophy of I. Kant with its “Copernican revolution,” the question of the a priori conditions that make experience (I) possible aims at constant involvement on the part of the subject; Apel’s transcendental pragmatics, reflecting the “linguistic turn” in Anglo-American philosophy influenced by L. Wittgenstein, inquires into the ineluctable conditions of the rational use of language (II) in argumentative discourse. What he calls attention to in this way is the intersubjective basis of the validity of norms, which he also considers the ultimate basis of ethics: whether …

Symbols/Symbol Theory

(9,049 words)

Author(s): Berner, Ulrich | Cancik-Lindemaier, Hildegard | Recki, Birgit | Schlenke, Dorothee | Biehl, Peter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Use of the Greek word σύμβολον/ sýmbolon in a sense relevant to religious studies is attested quite early in the history of European religions; Dio of Prusa (1st/2nd cent. ce), for example, used it in his speech on Phidias’s statue of Zeus in Olympia ( Oratio 12.59). In this context, the Greek term reflects the problem posed by images of the gods: what is intrinsically inaccessible to human vision (Vis…

Kant, Immanuel

(3,007 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] I. Theoretical Philosophy – II. Practical Philosophy – III. Esthetics and Nature Teleology (Apr 22, 1724, Königsberg – Feb 12, 1804, Königsberg), German philosopher whose thought on the critique of reason marks the high point of the Enlightenment and the origin of German Idealism. Kant saw ¶ his epoch as the “real age of criticism, to which everything must submit” ( Kritik der reinen Vernunft, AA 4, XI, note; ET: C…

Value Judgment

(1,418 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Mühling, Markus
[German Version] I. Philosophy A value judgment is a judgment by which something is assessed as valuable or valueless. In contrast to the judgment of fact, which constitutes a descriptive statement of facts with a claim to scientifically verifiable objectivity, the value judgment in the sense of a normative (prescriptive) assessment constitutes the act of recognizing or revocating a validity, mostly in practical respects (also indirectly). Where it is not directly meant to guide actions, it contains…

Judgment

(2,264 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Ethics – III. Psychology – IV. Law I. Philosophy

Sublime

(1,076 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Mädler, Inken
[German Version] I. Philosophy The expression the sublime (Ger. das Erhab…

Taste

(263 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] (Lat. gustus/ sapor; Fr. goût; Ger. Geschmack) is the ability to discern pleasure and displeasure. Originally limited to the physical sense of tasting, since antiquity the term has been applied figuratively to perception, judgment, speech, and conduct (e.g. M.T. Cicero). In the mid-17th century, it was discussed in ethics (Gracián, French moralist literature); in the 18th century, it became a central concept of aesthetics (I) throughout Europe. Advanced theories of epistemology grounded…

Beauty

(3,008 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit | Oeming, Manfred | Pfleiderer, Georg
[German Version] I. History of the Concept – II. Bible and Theology – III. Systematic and Practical Theology I. History of the Concept Beauty – Gk τὸ καλόν/ tó kalón, Lat. pulchritudo/pulcher, Ger. die Schönheit, Fr. la beauté – is the positive aesthetic attraction which an object exercises on the beholder by virtue of its felicitous form. In contemplative, aesthetic, and erotic experience beauty is experienced as harmonious and stimulating, as something that kindles enthusiasm and gives delight thus leading to a heightened attention and attraction to …

Play

(3,179 words)

Author(s): Matuschek, Stefan | Hübner, Ulrich | Recki, Birgit | Huxel, Kirsten | Klie, Thomas
[German Version] I. Cultural History The Dutch cultural historian Johan Huizinga identified play as a fundamental cultural phenomenon and thus a defining feature of human life. His thesis of homo ludens supplements the anthropological theories of homo sapiens and homo faber and other explanations of culture grounded in reason and fabrication (Labor). Huizinga posits the following definition: “Play is a voluntary activity or occupation executed within certain fixed limits of time and place, according to rules that are freely accepted but absolutely binding, having its aim in itself and accompanied by a feeling of tension, joy and the consciousness that it is ‘different’ from ‘ordinary life’ ” (…

Genius

(299 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] (Lat. ingenium/genius; Fr. génie) is the capacity for creative discovery and production. In analogy to G.W. Leibniz's notion of the divine choice of possible worlds, genius was characterized in the 18th century as the releaser of unrealized possibilities. Through the concept of genius with its productive power of imagination (Imagination, Power of), the aesthetics (I) of the 18th century valued the naturally given, spontaneous and emotionally accented facility for creativity above the regularity of…

Criticism,

(467 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] from Greek κρίνειν/ krínein, “distinguish, decide, judge,” is methodical evaluation based on well-founded criteria. In everyday usage, the word is identified with negative assessment; in philosophical usage, however, it denotes the weighing of both…

Transcendental Philosophy

(508 words)

Author(s): Recki, Birgit
[German Version] is an artificial technical term coined by I. Kant to characterize his methodological approach to a critique of reason. While the earlier expression transcendental
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