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Sequana

(426 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σηκοάνας/ Sēkoánas, Σηκουανός/ Sēkouanós), modern Seine. River in Gallia (Caes. B Gall. 1,1,2; Mela 3,2,20; Plin. HN 4,105; 109; Amm. Marc. 15,11,3; Str. 4,1,14; 3,2-5; 4,1; 5,2; Ptol. 2,8,2; 9,1; Cass. Dio 40,38,4) rising - contrary to Str. 4,3,2 - not in the Alps but on the plateau of Langres, then flowing through the Paris Basin and, meandering strongly from Iuliobona (present-day Lillebonne) and broadening into an estuary, arriving at the mare Britannicum (present-day English Channel). According to literary tradition, the S. formed an ethnic bord…

Virodunum

(233 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman vicus in Gallia Belgica in the territory of the Mediomatrici (It. Ant. 364,3; Not. Dign. Occ. 42,68; Not. Galliarum 5,4: Verodunum; various forms of the name in Greg. Tur. Franc. passim) on a spur between the Mosa [1] (Meuse) and its tributary, modern Scanne, at a crossing of the Durocortorum-Divodurum road with regional roads, modern Verdun in the département of Meuse. A Celtic oppidum cannot archaeologically be ascertained, the Imperial period topography is largely unknown ( macellum in Rue de Mazel?); already by the middle of th…

Nasium

(249 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] City of the Leuci in Gallia Belgica (It. Ant. 365,3; Tab. Peut. 2,5; Νάσιον/ Násion, Ptol. 2,9,13) between the rivers Mosella and Matrona [2] in the region of the present-day communities of Naix-aux-Forge and Saint-Amand-sur-Ornain. The Gallo-Roman city, located in the Ornain valley, succeeded a Celtic oppidum (52 ha) situated on the neighbouring hill of Boviolles. N. is located on the military road leading from Durocortorum to Tullum and Divodurum (Tab. Peut. l.c.; It. Ant. l.c.), but its importance in transportation is prim…

Dubis

(40 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] River in Gallia, modern Doubs, rises in the French Jura, crosses the territory of the Sequani and flows into the  Arar at Verdun-sur-le-Doubs (Caes. B Gall. 1,38; Str. 4,1,11; 14; 4,3,2; Ptol. 2,10,3). Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Triboci

(256 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People in Lower Alsace, who arrived in Gaul with Ariovistus in 58 BC and settled among the Mediomatrici around Brocomagus (modern Brumath) and Haguenau [1]. Their neighbours to the north were the Nemetes, to the west the Mediomatrici, to the south or southwest the Rauraci and the Leuci. When the T. became settled is unclear. The depictions in Caes. B Gall. 4,10 and  Str. 4,3,4 (Τρίβοκχοι/ Tríbokchoi) probably correspond only to circumstances around the middle of the 1st cent. BC ([2. 27-30]; later: [3]). In AD 70 the T. took part in the Treveri …

Vertunum

(374 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Roman vicus, name only mediaeval, in the western part of the civitas Treverorum (Belgium, province of Luxemburg, Treveri), at the point where the Rivers Ton and Vire meet. V. developed as a centre on the right bank of the Ton, which gradually rises to a height of 20 m (modern Vieux-Virton) and ultimately merges into the Majeroux plateau; also on the left side in the narrow floor of the Vire valley, where a trade quarter (modern Saint-Mard) developed. V. lay on an old, presumably pre-Roman, ro…

Campi Catalauni

(138 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Settlement area of the  Catalauni in modern Champagne, repeatedly the scene of significant battles, thus in AD 273 the victory of emperor Aurelianus over the Gallic usurper  Esuvius Tatricus (SHA Aurelian. 23,3; Eutr. 9,13; Jer. Chron. AD 273), and in AD 366 the victory of general Iovinus over a Germanic army (Amm. Marc. 27,2,4). The Campi Catalauni attained particular fame with the battle of Châlon of 451, when, under Avitus' leadership, a coalition between Rome and the Visigoths…

Helellum

(170 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Tab. Peut. 3,4; Alaia, Geogr. Rav. 26). Roman vicus of the Triboci in Upper Alsace (not identical to  Helvetum) on the Argentovaria-Argentoratum route at the crossing of the Ill near modern Ehl-Benfeld, Département Bas-Rhin [1]; a late La Tène period settlement was followed in the late Augustan period by the Gallo-Roman vicus that ultimately developed c. 100 m on both sides of the main road over a length of c. 1,000 m. A necropolis (3rd/4th cents. AD) is located south of H. Despite the minor artisan businesses, H. was primarily a trading centre. The vicus, which was also …

Suessiones

(164 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Οὐέσσονες/ Ouéssones, Ptol. 2,9,11). People in Gallia Belgica in the particularly fertile modern Soissonais (departement of Aisne/Oise). With the Remi to the east, the S. formed a cultural identity, linked by the same law, the same magistrates and a unified commander-in-chief (Caes. B Gall. 2,3,4 f.). In about 80 BC, Diviciacus [1] gained supremacy as far as the southeast of Britain. When Caesar invaded in 58/7 BC, the state unity of the S. and the pro-Roman Remi disintegrated. Th…

Saletio

(377 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Small town between the Seltzbach and the Sauer, at the mouth of these two rivers as they flow into the Rhine (today one of the Rhine arms), present-day Sel(t)z (Département Bas-Rhin southeast of Wissembourg). S. was situated on the border of the civitates of the Triboci and the Nemetes and was classified as belonging to them at least in late antiquity. The roads Mogontiacum-Argentorate and Saravus-Vosegus-Agri Decumates crossed here (It. Ant. 354,6; Tab. Peut. 3,3). There are traces of settlements dating to the Bronze Age; a Celtic oppidum from the pre-Roman era is …

Vesontio

(1,207 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
This item can be found on the following maps: Caesar | Caesar | Christianity | | Gallia/Gaul | Celts | Oppidum | Rome (Vesontine, Bisontii, Besantio, Οὐεσόντιον/ Ouesóntion, modern Besançon, Dép. du Doubs), civitas metropolis of the Sequani. [German version] I. Beginnings Thanks to its outstanding topographical location (Caes. B Gall. 1,38,4; Julian. Ep. 26; Ptol. 2,9,21) in an almost circular oxbow of the Dubis (modern Doubs; radius 600 m), with the isthmus blocked in the southeast by a natural rise (Colline de la Citadelle), the site …

Divodurum

(311 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | | Limes | Batavian Revolt The chief town of the Gallo-Roman civitas of the Mediomatrici, now Metz, on a long ridge between the Moselle and the Seille before their confluence (Ptol. 2,9,7). A Hallstatt oppidum destroyed in the 6th cent. BC was succeeded by a La Tène age camp taken in the war against Caesar. When the Augustan settlement fell victim to a conflagration under Tiberius, the new town was given a typical Roman ‘grid pattern’, whose main coordinates were formed by the roads between Lyons and Trier (  cardo

Tullum

(184 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Τούλλιον/ Toúllion). Civitas capital of the Leuci in Gallia Belgica on the left bank of the Moselle River (Mosella) on an elevation surrounded by branches of the Ingressin brook, before its confluence with the Moselle; modern Toul ( département of Meurthe et Moselle). An important hub for water and land routes (It. Ant. 365,4; 385,10; AE 1975, 634). Despite good geographical conditions for transport, T. was overshadowed by other cities and civitas capitals. Only in the 5th cent. was it of particular significance (Notitia Galliarum 5,4; Geogr. Rav 4,26). Apart from the c…

Nervii

(566 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] A people in Gallia Belgica; their territory encompassed parts of the modern Belgian provinces of Hainault, Brabant and East Flanders and the French Département Nord. The northwestern and western border with the Menapii and Atrebates [1] followed the Scaldis (Scheldt) from its estuary to its source; the southern border with the Remi ran from there in a direct line, probably identical with the contour of the Thiérache forest, to the source of the Isara [2]. The eastern border with t…

Sequani

(512 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] (Σηκοανοί/ Sēkoanoí, Σηκουανοί/ Sēkouanoí). A Celtic people, ethnically and culturally related to the north and east Gallic tribes, who in the Prehistoric Period presumably lived on the Sequana [1] (Seine) first, later in present-day Franche-Comté. In the mid 1st cent. BC, the rule of king Catamantaloedes was succeeded by an aristocratic regime (Caes. B Gall. 1,3,4). The S. called the Germani into their country against the Haedui and were forced to cede to them large parts of their t…

Pleumoxii

(56 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] People of Gallia Belgica, mentioned only in Caes. B Gall. 5,39,1 in the context of the events of the winter of 54/3 BC, who were in a relationship of dependence on their immediate neighbours the Nervii. Their homelands were probably in Brabant or in the Belgian province of Namur. Schön, Franz (Regensburg)

Remi

(774 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Tribe in Gallia Belgica that settled in the Aisne, Vesle and Suippe valleys, with a heavy concentration in the middle Aisne valley, i.e. in the present-day départements of Marne and Ardennes, and in parts of Aisne and Meuse [1. 127 f.]. Encircled by forests, the territory of the R. nowhere bordered on neighbouring tribes. When the R. had become settled in this region, they drifted so far from their original 'nomadic mind-set' that they identified their concept of the boundless world around them now with th…

Gesoriacum

(523 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul | Commerce | Batavian Revolt Harbour city of the Morini in Gallia Belgica, modern Boulogne-sur-mer, also attested as Bononia. Both names, which were used contemporaneously (Flor. Epit. 2,30), actually refer only to parts of the site. According to the traditional view, G. is the lower part of the city, while Bononia is the upper part (contrary [1. 63]). During his stay in AD 4, Tiberius called the place Bononia (ILS 9463); thereafter, unt…

Samarobriva

(526 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: | Gallia/Gaul Principal town of the civitas of the Ambiani, Late Antique Ambianis, modern Amiens (Dépt. Somme) at a crossing ( -briva) over the Samara (Caes. B Gall. 5,24,1; 47,2; 53,3; Cic. Fam. 7,11,2; 12,1,16; Tab. Peut. 2,3; CIL XIII 3490; Notae Tironianae 73 Zangenmeister; Honorius, Cosmographia 36 B1 Riese; in Ptol. 2,9,4 alternatively: Σαμαρόβριγα/ Samaróbriga; ILS 5839; It. Ant. 379,9 f.; 380,1: Samarabriva). No evidence of a preceding Celtic settlement has been found [1]. Its geographical charact…

Toxandria

(103 words)

Author(s): Schön, Franz (Regensburg)
[German version] Region (Amm. Marc. 17,8,3) in the modern provinces of Noord-Brabant, Antwerpen and Limburg, in the Middle Ages the earldom of Teisterbant. The population (Texuandri: Plin. HN 4,106; ILS 2556; CIL III, 6239; 14214) consisted of different groups, among them Germanic peoples which gathered in the former settlement area of the Eburones. The Salii [1], who settled in T. in Late Antiquity, were defeated in AD 358 by Iulianus [11], but may have remained in the country and made T. the starting point for their expansion in the 4th and 5th cents. Schön, Franz (Regensburg) Bibliograp…
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