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Philippus

(7,662 words)

Author(s): Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Et al.
[German version] I Greek (Φίλιππος/ Phílippos). Macedonian kings P. [3-7], including P. [4] II, P. [7] V; the apostle and evangelist P. [28]; philosophers and poets P. [29-32]. [German version] [I 1] Spartan naval leader in 411 BC Spartiate, commander at Miletus in 412 BC (Thuc. 8,28,5), sent in 411 with two triremes to Aspendus to move, with the support of Tissaphernes, the Phoenician fleet to fight Athens (Thuc. 8,87), but soon told the naúarchos Mindarus that his mission would be unsuccessful (Thuc. 8,99; [1. 244]). Peloponnesian War Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography 1 B. …

Crantor

(286 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Κράντωρ; Krántōr) of Soli. Academic philosopher of the early 3rd cent. BC. Studied with  Xenocrates and  Polemon. He surrounded himself with a considerable number of students (Diog. Laert. 4,24). It is unclear whether he was scholar of the  Academy for a short period of time. His favourite student was  Arcesilaus [5]. Little has survived of his voluminous and varied writings (Diog. Laert. 4,24: 30,000 lines). The writing ‘On Mourning’ (Περὶ Πένθους) was famous and decisive for the…

Hegesinus

(161 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἡγησίνους; Hēgēsínous). [German version] [1] Teacher of Carneades, 2nd cent. BC H. of Pergamum, 1st half of the 2nd cent. BC, likely identical with Hegesilaus in Clem. Al. strom. 1,64,1. He took over the direction of the Academy from Evander (Diog. Laert. 4,60). H., the last representative of the Middle Academy (Galen hist. phil. 3 = Diels, DG 599f.; Clem. Al. ibid.), was the teacher of Carneades (Cic. Acad. 2,16), his later (before 155 BC) successor in the scholarchate. The name H. turns up only in succession lists; information going beyond mention of the name is lacking.  Academy Stanzel,…

Deinomachus

(81 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Δεινόμαχος; Deinómachos). Philosopher whose dates and school cannot be precisely determined; little can be deduced doxographically. He is mentioned only in association with Calliphon, who is scarcely more easily placed: both represent a position recorded in a discourse on the divisio Carneadea ( Carneades) in Cic. Fin. 5,21, seeing virtue ( honestas) allied with pleasure (ἡδονή) as the goal of human action (Clem. Al. Strom. 2,21,127; also critically commented upon in Cic. Off. 3,119; Tusc. 5,85). Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)

Moschion

(705 words)

Author(s): Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Piccione, Rosa Maria
(Μοσχίων/ Moschíōn). [German version] [1] Tragedian, 3rd cent. BC Athenian tragedian, probably 2nd half of 3rd cent. BC, known almost solely through quotations by Stobaeus. Titles attested include ‘Telephos and two historical dramas: ‘Themistokles, at the heart of which was probably the naval battle at Salamis, following on from Aeschylus' ‘Persians, with the distinction that M. made Themistocles the protagonist; and ‘The Pheraeans, probably dealing with the death of Alexander [15] of Pherae. A lengthy f…

Crates

(2,486 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Broggiato, Maria (London) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Κράτης; Krátēs). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies, 5th cent. BC Athenian, the poet of the Old Comedy who began giving performances c. 450 BC [1. test. 7]. Previously an actor with  Cratinus [1], [1. test. 2 and 3]. Certain sources claim that he wrote seven plays [1. test. 1 and 2], other sources claim eight [1. test. 4]. Altogether nine titles of plays have survived (although the Μέτοικοι ‘The Metoikoi’ and Πεδῆται ‘The Prisoners’ may be wrongly attributed to him). On the list of Dionysian winners, C. is list…

Telecles

(88 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τηλεκλῆς; Tēleklês). Academian philosopher of the 3rd/ 2nd cent. BC from Phocaea, after Lacydes' resignation from leading the Academy ( Akadḗmeia ) he apparently held a prominent position alongside Evander [3] (cf. Diog. Laert. 4,60). T. had his own pupils and gave lectures, but we know nothing of any writings or specific doctrines, Apollodorus [7] ( Chroniká 30 Dorandi) gives 167/6 BC as the year of his death; T. presumably died before Evander. Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) Bibliography W. Görler, T. Euandros. Hegesinus, in: GGPh2, Bd. 4.2, 834-836.

Carneades

(628 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Καρνεάδης; Karneádēs). [German version] [1] Academic philosopher from the 3rd/2nd cent. BC Academic philosopher, born 214/3 (or 219/8 BC) in Cyrene, died 129/8 in Athens. He probably came to Athens as a young man, later receiving rights of citizenship. After studying i. a. under the Stoic  Diogenes [15] of Babylon he joined the  Academy, taking over leadership from another of his masters,  Hegesinus [1], in around 164/60. He gave up the leadership in 137/6, thus long before his death, perhaps for health re…

Boethus

(1,274 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Gottschalk, Hans (Leeds) | Degani, Enzo (Bologna) | Et al.
(Βόηθος; Bóēthos). I. Political figures [German version] [1] Ptolemaean civil servant, 136/5 BC Son of Nicostratus from Caria; in the service of the Ptolemies well before 149 BC, he occupied various administrative positions before becoming epistrategos of Thebes. Founded two cities in Lower Nubia. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography K. Vandorpe, Der früheste Beleg eines Strategen der Thebais als Epistrategen, in: ZPE 73, 1988, 47-50. II. Philosophers and writers [German version] [2] Of Sidon Stoic Philosopher, 2nd cent. BC Stoic philosopher of the 2nd cent. BC; he wrote…

Ecdemus

(112 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἔκδημος; Ékdēmos) or Ecdelus (Ἔκδηλος; Ékdēlos, thus Plutarch, Polybius) from Megalopolis. Academic philosopher of the 3rd cent. BC, pupil of Arcesilaus who is mainly known because of his many and diverse political activities (Plut. Aratus 5: ‘a philosopher and a man of action at the same time’, ἀνὴρ φιλόσοφος καὶ πρακτικός cf. Id., Philopoemen 1); (Pol. 10,22; cf. Paus. 8,49,1): he was a teacher of Philopoemen; together with Demophanes, he liberated his home town of Aristodemus' tyra…

Aristippus

(645 words)

Author(s): Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
(Ἀρίστιππος; Arístippos) [German version] [1] Tyrant of Argos (middle of the 3rd cent. BC) From Argus, friend of the Antigonids, against whom his rival Aristeas called  Pyrrhus into the town in 272 BC (Plut. Pyrrh. 30,2); after 272/1 probably the tyrant [1. 396]. Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) [German version] [2] Tyrant of Argos (240-234 BC) Grandson of [1] [1. 711], son of the tyrant  Aristomachus [3], tyrant in 240-235/4; vanquished in an ambush near Cleonae by the repeated attacks of  Aratus [2] (Plut. Arat. 27-29 [2. 61-63], whom A. had sued a…

Charmadas

(108 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Χαρμάδας; Charmádas or Χαρμίδας; Charmídas). Lived c. 165- 91 BC (cf. Cic. De or. 2,360). Apollod. Chronica 119-130 Dorandi (= FGrH 244 F 59; subsequently Philod. Ind. Acad. 31,35-32,10) very probably relates to him: a pupil of Carneades, after founding his own school he returned to the Academy. In Sext. Emp. Pyrrhōneioi hypotypṓseis 1,220 and Euseb. Praep. evang. 14,4,16 mentioned with Philo as founder of a ‘Fourth Academy’. Probably most important as a teacher of rhetoric (cf. Cic. D…

Polyxenus

(397 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Πολύξενος/ Polýxenos, 'he who has many guests'). [German version] [1] Sobriquet for Hades Poetic epithet for the god of the underworld (Hades, Pluto): Aesch. Supp. 156 f. etc. (cf. Polydectes [2]). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Mythical king of Elis Mythical king of Elis; holds in safekeeping the cattle stolen from Electryon; Amphitryon releases them and receives Electryon's daughter Alcmene in return (Apollod. 2,55 f.; Schol. Lycoph. 932). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Mythical king of Elis Mythical king of Elis, grandson of Augeias; suitor of Helen…

Xenocrates

(2,016 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Zimmermann, Bernhard (Freiburg) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Ξενοκράτης/ Xenokrátēs). [German version] [1] X. of Acragas, mentioned by Pindar, c. 500 BC Brother of the tyrant Theron of Acragas. Pind. Pyth. 6 refers to X.' victory in chariot-racing at the Pythian Games (Pythia [2]) in 490 BC, and Pind. Isthm. 2 to his charioteering victory at the Isthmian Games (Isthmia) in c. 470 BC. The latter ode was written after X.' death. Meister, Klaus (Berlin) Bibliography H. Berve, Die Tyrannis bei den Griechen, 1967, 133; 135. [German version] [2] X. of Chalcedon Academic philosopher, 4th cent. BC Academic philosopher (Academy), 4th cent. BC. Stanzel, Ka…

Menedemus

(1,406 words)

Author(s): Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Μενέδημος; Menédēmos). [German version] [1] Functionary of Alexander the Great, 329 BC sent by Alexander [4] the Great in 329 BC, with a 1500-strong mercenary infantry, Caranus with 800 mounted mercenaries and Andromachus with 60 hetairoi, to relieve the fortress of Maracanda, which was under siege by Spitamenes. Pharnuches, a Lycian (but certainly descended from Persian settlers) interpreter, was provided to them as he was familiar with the inhabitants and their language (Arr. An. 4,3,7). Through the inco…

Bucolics

(3,076 words)

Author(s): Fantuzzi, Marco (Florence) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
I. Greek [German version] A. Genre Real Greek bucolic poetry (‘real’ compared with its later development in Latin, see below, and in  Longus, 2nd cent. AD) consists of Idyls (= Id.; eidyllia). 1, 3 to 7 and 11 of  Theocritus, 3rd cent. BC (Id. 10 is similar, but more agriculturally Hesiodic than pastoral), and several other poems of the Corpus Theocriteum (Id. 8; 9; 20; 27). The latter are probably pseudoepigraphs and can be ascribed to the epoch between the end of the 3rd and the 2nd cent. All except Id. [8],33-60 (elegiac distichs) are written in hexa…

Hermodorus

(407 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Ἑρμόδωρος; Hermódōros). [German version] [1] Critic of his fellow citizens in a fragment of Heraclitus In a fragment of the philosopher  Heraclitus [1] of Ephesus, the latter criticizes his fellow citizens because they had banished H., the ‘most estimable man’ among them, with the justification that among them ‘no one should be the most estimable’ (Diels/Kranz 22,121 = Str. 14,1,25; Cic. Tusc. 5,105). According to later tradition, H., who went into exile in Italy, was involved in the drawing up of the Twelve …

Erastus

(75 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Ἔραστος; Érastos) from Scepsis. 4th cent. BC; a pupil of Plato, he took part in the philosophical delegation to Hermias at Assos (Didymus, In Demosthenem commenta V 54 = F 7 Lasserre). According to Philod. Index academicorum VI 10-12, E. like Asclepiades of Phleius was the author of a text ‘Memories ( Apomnēmoneúmata) of Plato’, otherwise unknown. Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) Bibliography F. Lasserre, De Léodamas de Thasos à Philippe d' Oronte. Témoignages et fragments, 1987.

Lacydes

(230 words)

Author(s): Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen)
[German version] (Λακύδης; Lakýdēs) of Cyrene. Academic philosopher of the 3rd cent. BC. Took over the leadership of the Academy from Arcesilaus [5], which he held, according to Diog. Laert. 4,60/61, for 26 years and handed over in his own lifetime to Evander and Telecles. How the information contained in Philod. Academicorum Index 27,1-7 is to be reconciled with this is disputed (details in [1. 831]). L. died most likely in the year 207 BC ([1. 830], differently [2. 50]). He lectured in a garden…

Socrates

(6,685 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Σωκράτης; Sōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Thebes, c. 470 BC Sculptor from Thebes. He created a cult statue of Meter Dindymene for Pindar [2] in Thebes (Paus. 9,25,3) and therefore must have worked in the 'Severe Style' around 470 BC. Paus. 1,22,8 attributed a relief of the Charites and a Hermes Propylaios on the Acropolis in Athens to the philosopher S. [2] as the alleged sculptor. The relief of the Charites is identified as the model of a much-copied type. Because it is dated to around 470,…
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