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Ephialtes

(540 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Rhodes, Peter J. (Durham) | Engels, Johannes (Cologne)
(Ἐφιάλτης; Ephiáltēs). Mythology  Aloads. [German version] [1] Son of Eurydemus of Malis Son of Eurydemus of Malis, he is supposed to have shown  Xerxes the path over the mountains at  Thermopylae, in the hope of a large reward. This enabled the Persians to circumvent the Greek army under Leonidas and attack it from the rear. E. himself is said to have led the elite corps of Hydarnes along this path, and so contributed to the defeat of the Spartans. Herodotus was already aware of another version, thought by…

Amphidamas

(250 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Ἀμφιδάμας; Amphidámas). [German version] [1] Hero from Tegea in Arcadia Hero from Tegea in Arcadia, son of Aleus, brother of Lycurgus son of Cepheus and Auge (Paus. 8,4,8), one of the Argonauts (Apoll. Rhod. 1,161; 2,1046). In Apollod. 3,105 he is not the brother, but the son of Lycurgus, and his children are Melanion ( Atalante) and Antimache, wife of Eurystheus. Deviating genealogies in the Homeric scholia  Aphidas. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Opuntic Locrian Opuntic Locrian. Patroclus killed his son during an astragalos game and sought protection from Pe…

Lampon

(420 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Maharam, Wolfram-Aslan (Gilching) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Eck, Werner (Cologne)
(Λάμπων; Lámpōn). [German version] [1] Son of Pytheas of Aegina, 5th cent. BC Son of Pytheas of Aegina; after the victory at Plataeae (479 BC), he suggested to Pausanias that the body of Mardonius be defiled just like the latter had dishonoured the body of Leonidas [1] at Thermopylae (Hdt. 9,78f.). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Seer, co-founders of Thurii L. the Seer. He participated in the founding of Thurii (Diod. Sic. 12,10,3; schol. Aristoph. Nub. 332; Phot. s.v. Θουριομάντις; Plut. Mor. 812d). By interpreting an omen (σημείον /sēmeíon: one-horned ram) in…

Inaros

(120 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἰνάρως; Inárōs). Libyan king, son of  Psammetichus, called on the Egyptians in 460 BC to revolt against the Persians. The Athenians called by I. to the aid of the Egyptians, participated in the initially successful enterprise and surrounded  Memphis. This siege was drawn out over years. Not until 456 did the Persians send an army to Memphis that surrounded the Athenians on the island of  Prosopis. But it was not until an arm of the Nile was laid dry that they were finally forced t…

Philaidae

(447 words)

Author(s): Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Φιλαΐδαι; Philaïdai). [German version] [1] Attican deme P. was an Attic mesogeia deme of the Aigeis phyle with three bouleutaí on the east coast of Attica. The shrine of Artemis at Brauron was on its territory. Peisistratus [4] came from P. (Pl. Hipparch. 228b; Plut. Solon 10,2). It is unsubstantiated that Cleisthenes [2] did not therefore name the deme Brauron [4. 11 with fn. 30, 24 with fn. 83]. The location of the deme centre of P. to the west of the early Christian basilica of Brauron [1. 41; 2. 127] is hypothetical [3. 56]. Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) Bibliography 1 Traill, Attica, 41, 6…

Myronides

(300 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
(Μυρωνίδης; Myrōnídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian strategos, 479/478 BC Athenian, member of the legation that went to Sparta in 480/479 BC to demand the immediate departure of the Peloponnesian army. In 479/478 M., as one of the strategoi led the contingent at  Plataeae (Plut. Aristeides 10,10; 20,1). Nothing is known about the lineage of M. However, the fact that he was part of the legation of 480/479 and that eleven ostraka with his name were found at the Kerameikos would indicate that he had already enjoyed great personal prestige and political influence earlier on. Persian Wars Ste…

Antiphemus

(134 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἀντίφημος; Antíphēmos). Rhodian from Lindus; in 688 BC founded the town of  Gela in Sicily after first consulting the oracle of Delphi. Herodotus (7,153) says an ancestor of a later tyrant,  Gelon, was involved, while Thucydides names Entimus of Crete as a further leader of the colonists. The stronghold was called first Lindioi and then Gela, from the river at the mouth of which it stood, and there Doric customs held sway (Thuc. 6,4,3). Even though several towns may have sent out …

Hegetorides

(64 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἡγητορίδης; Hēgētorídēs). Respected citizen of Cos. The story of his daughter who was abducted by the Persians and who, as a suppliant, is said to have been freed by the Spartan ruler  Pausanias after the battle of Plataeae (479 BC), is one of Herodotus' examples of the moral superiority of the Greeks (Hdt. 9,76; cf. Paus. 3,4,9). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Mnesiphilus

(128 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Μνησίφιλος/ Mnēsíphilos). Athenian from the deme of Phrearrii. Immediately before the battle of Salamis (480 BC), he advised Themistocles to assert his influence with the allies in order to prevent their planned retreat to the Isthmus. Later writers generally regarded M. as a teacher of practical wisdom in the tradition of Solon and as an adviser and friend of Themistocles (Plut. Themistocles 2,6; Plut. Mor. 795c). 14 ostraka from the Kerameikos show that in 487/6 BC M. was nominated for ostrakophoria (see ostrakismós ). Whether he himself wa…

Strattis

(244 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Στράττις/ Stráttis). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Chios, 6th cent. BC Tyrant of Chios, who took part in the Scythian campaign in 513 BC as an adviser of Darius [1] (Hdt. 4,138). It can not be determined whether he was deposed at the beginning of the Ionian Revolt. Nevertheless, he was able to resume his reign after the Persians' victory (in 493/2 BC). In 479 he was able to elude a conspiracy (Hdt. 8,132). At the liberation of Ionia after the battle of Mycale in 479 S. may also have been toppled. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Attic comic poet, 5th/4th cents. BC Attic comi…

Aleuadae

(213 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἀλευάδαι; Aleuádai). Aristocratic family from Thessaly, which ruled in  Larissa and surrounding areas. Aleuas ‘the Red’ is supposed to have created the military and political order of the Thessalian federation (Aristot. fragment 497 Rose; Plut. Mor. 492A-B). Numerous A. held the tageia, the highest office of this federation. According to Herodotus (7,6; 130; 9,58) they approached Xerxes before the Persian Wars in order to cause his invasion of Greece; a few even joined the Persian army. From 404 BC the political develop…

Agariste

(126 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Will, Wolfgang (Bonn)
(Ἀγαρίστη; Agarístē). [German version] [1] Mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens (6th cent. BC) Daughter of the tyrant  Cleisthenes of Sicyon, wife of the Alcmaeonid  Megacles, mother of  Cleisthenes of Athens. The story of the long courtship before her marriage around 575 BC can be regarded as the paradigmatic depiction of the lifestyle of the archaic aristocracy (Hdt. 6,126 ff.).  Aristocracy Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography E. Stein-Hölkeskamp, Adelskultur und Polisges., 1989, 117-119. [German version] [2] Athenian, mother of Pericles Athenian, great-grandda…

Lycurgus

(2,669 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Visser, Edzard (Basle) | Hölkeskamp, Karl-Joachim (Cologne) | Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Et al.
(Λυκοῦργος/ Lykoûrgos, ep. Λυκόοργος/ Lykóorgos, Lat. Lucurgus, Lycurgus). [German version] [1] Son of Dryas Son of Dryas, in Nonnus also son of Ares (Nonnus, Dion. 20,149 et passim), opponent of Dionysus, who drives the latter's nurses over the unidentified Nysḗïon mountains ( Nysa) with the bouplḗx (‘ox beater’) and intimidates the mad god to such an extent that he dives into the sea to Thetis (Hom. Il. 6,128-140). While in Aeschylus' tetralogy Lykourgeía (TrGF 3 T 68: Ēdōnoí F 57-67, Bassárai/- rídes F 23-25, Neānískoi F 146-149, Lykoûrgos F 124-126) L. is king of the Thracian …

Ietragoras

(51 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἰητραγόρας/ Iētragóras, Ἰητραγόρης/ Iētragórēs) of Miletus, was assigned by the rebellious Ionians in 499 BC with waylaying the Persian fleet returning from Naxos and capturing the pro-Persian tyrants on the ships (Hdt. 5,36f.). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) Bibliography U. Walter, Herodot und die Ursachen des Ionischen Aufstandes, in: Historia 42, 1993, 257-278.

Medontidae

(117 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Μεδοντίδαι; Medontídai). Aristocratic Athenian family, whose ancestor Medon [5] renounced the royal title in 1069 BC, and was supposedly the first to hold the archonship ( árchontes) for life. The office was then said to have become hereditary within his family, until the term of office was limited to ten years in 753. The ten-year archonship was also said to have been held exclusively by the M. down to 713 (Aristot. Ath. Pol. 3,3; Paus. 4,5,10). However, there is no authentic evi…

Epicydes

(179 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich)
(Ἐπικύδης; Epikýdēs). [German version] [1] Son of Euphemides of Athens c. 480 BC Son of Euphemides of Athens. In 480 BC, he ran for the office of strategos but  Themistocles supposedly bribed him into withdrawing his candidacy (Plut. Themist. 6; Mor. 185A). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) [German version] [2] Confidant of Hannibal Brother of Hippocrates, grandson of Arcesilaus, a Syracusian exile in Carthage. E. grew up in Carthage as the son of a Carthaginian woman (Pol. 7,2; Liv. 24,6; Iust. 22,8). He was a confidant of Hannibal and, in 214 B…

Orthagoras

(445 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Karttunen, Klaus (Helsinki)
(Ὀρθαγόρας/ Orthagóras). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Sicyon, 6th cent. BC O. of Sicyon is said to have established the tyrannís there around 650 BC. The ruling dynasty thus established was called the 'Orthagorids' after him. An anonymous ‘history of tyranny (FGrH 105 F 2) preserved on papyrus, and probably deriving from Ephorus, reports that O. had first distinguished himself as a border guard on the frontier with a neighbouring city, and later rose to become commander of the watch and polémarchos . Whether he had the support of the hoplítai for his seizure o…

Aristides

(3,776 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne) | Fusillo, Massimo (L'Aquila) | Galli, Lucia (Florence) | Bowie, Ewen (Oxford) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ἀριστείδης; Aristeídēs). [German version] [1] Athenian politician and srategos (beginning of the 5th cent. BC) Of Athens, son of Lysimachus. He was one of the most prominent politicians and strategoi of Athens at the time of the Persian Wars. In the battle of Marathon, he probably served as a strategos. In 489/488 BC, he was the eponymous archon (Plut. Aristides 1,2, cf. IG I3 1031). In 482 BC, he was ostrazised ( Ostraka) (Hdt. 8,79; Aristot. Ath. Pol. 22,7; Plut. Aristides 7,1 ff.). His rivalry with  Themistocles, documented already in Herodotus (8,79), …

Helixus

(59 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (Ἕλιξος; Hélixos). Strategos from Megara. In 411 BC, H. led a fleet contingent of the  Peloponnesian League, which caused Byzantium to break away from Athens (Thuc. 8,80). When the city was later besieged by the Athenians, H. defended it until it capitulated in the winter of 409/8 (Xen. Hell. 1,3,15; 17; 21). Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)

Medismos

(229 words)

Author(s): Stein-Hölkeskamp, Elke (Cologne)
[German version] (μηδισμός/ mēdismós). The term medismos was used to describe the voluntary collaboration of individual Greeks or whole cities with the Persians, whom the Greeks often referred to as ‘Medes’. Apart from active political-military collaboration with the Great King, the verb mēdízein also refers to the adoption of Persian customs and practices together with a luxurious way of life. Medismos was perceived as a graver offence than the betrayal of the home town to another Greek town, because it affected pan-Greek interests as well as the intere…
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