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(4,164 words)

Author(s): Lampart, Fabian | Thimann, Michael | Lauer, Gerhard | Hühn, Lore | Rosenau, Hartmut
[German Version] I. As Epoch 1. Literature. The term “romantic” (from Old Fr. romanz, roman; cf. Ger. romantisch) appeared as early as the 17th century with the meaning “unbridled,” “fantastic,” “wild”; while Romanticism in Europe denotes a period in culture and art. As a movement in literary studies it runs from 1790 to 1825, with offshoots to c. 1850. ¶ Literary Romanticism in Germany is divided into early, high, and late Romanticism. Around 1798, the so-called Jena or early Romantic group (until c. 1806) formed around the journal Athenäum, represented by Friedrich v. Hardenberg …

Schnorr von Carolsfeld, Julius

(157 words)

Author(s): Thimann, Michael
[German Version] (Mar 26, 1794, Leipzig – May 24, 1872, Dresden), painter and illustrator associated with German Romanticism. From 1811 to 1815, he studied at the Vienna Academy. In 1818 he joined the circle of the Nazarenes (IV) in Rome, though he did not convert to Catholicism. From 1822 to 1827, he created frescoes illustrating Ariosto in the Casino Massimo. Ludwig I called him to the Munich Academy. Between 1831 and 1867, he created a cycle illustrating the Nibelungenlied in the Bavarian palace. Beginning in 1835, he also painted scenes from the lives of the German em…

Runge, Philipp Otto

(342 words)

Author(s): Thimann, Michael
[German Version] (Jul 23, 1777, Wolgast – Dec 2, 1810, Hamburg), painter and theoretician of German Romanticism. His first teacher was Gotthard Ludwig Theobul Kosegarten. In 1795 he was apprenticed to his brother’s firm in Hamburg and began drawing lessons. From 1799 to 1801 he studied at the Copenhagen Academy; from 1801 to 1804 he lived in Dresden, though he did not study at the academy there. In 1801 he submitted his Achill und Skamandros for the Weimarer Kunstfreunde prize, but it was rejected. Runge broke with Classicism and pioneered a new style of landscape art…