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Ligures, Liguria

(593 words)

Author(s): Angeli Bertinelli, Maria Gabriella (Genoa)
[German version] (Λίγυες; Lígyes). Pre-Indo-European tribe, intermarried with Indo-European Celts, possibly immigrated from northern Europe (Plut. Marius 19,3-5) to northern Italy. Originally widespread in the western Mediterranean (Iberia, Gaul, northern Italy to Latium, Sicily), the L. were driven back by population shifts into the area between the Alps and the Padus (Po): remains of Old Stone Age cultures (e.g. the caves of Balzi Rossi, Arene Candide); Lepontic inscriptions; terminology, onomas…

Luna

(1,084 words)

Author(s): Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) | Angeli Bertinelli, Maria Gabriella (Genoa)
[German version] [1] Roman Goddess of the moon Latin for moon. Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) [German version] A. Overview Deity as well as celestial body, L. was considered the subordinate (female) counterpart to Sol, the sun. In Roman etymology, the name derives from the Latin lucēre, ‘to shine’ (Varro, Ling. 5,68; Cic. Nat. D. 2,68), in modern etymology from the feminine form of the corresponding adjective * louqsna (connected to Lucina , cf. losna in Praeneste, CIL I2 549). Gordon, Richard L. (Ilmmünster) [German version] B. Public cult and temple The Roman antiquarians believed…

Apuani

(134 words)

Author(s): Angeli Bertinelli, Maria Gabriella (Genoa)
[German version] Tribe of  Ligurians between Magra and Serchio in northern Etruria ( Etruscans), today the Apuan Alps and Garfagnana. Defeated after intensive fighting against the Romans (at the latest from 187 BC: Liv. 39,2; 20; 32; 38; 40,1); in 180 BC under the proconsuls P. Cornelius Cethegus and Cn. Baebius Tamphilius 40,000 A. were deported to  Samnium ( Ligures Corneliani et Baebiani: Plin. HN 3,105), and a further 7,000 in the same year under the consuls A. Postumius Albinus and Q. Fulvius Flaccus (Liv. 40,41). Angeli Bertinelli, Maria Gabriella (Genoa) Bibliography G. Forni (…

Urvinum Mataurense

(152 words)

Author(s): Angeli Bertinelli, Maria Gabriella (Genoa)
[German version] (Οὐρβῖνον/ Ourbînon). City (Plin. HN. 3,114; Geogr. Rav 4,33) on an elevation (451 m) on the eastern slopes of the Appenninus between the Rivers Metaurus [2] and Pisaurus (modern Foglia), connected by an access road to the via Flaminia on the Adriatic coast; modern Urbino (in the Marche region). UM was a municipium (probably not until after the Social Wars [3] in 89 BC), tribus Stellatina ( quattuorviri recorded: CIL XI 6053-6068), Regio VI (Umbria). Involved in the battles between the Goti and the troops of Iustinianus [1], UM was conquered in AD 53…

Genoa

(398 words)

Author(s): Angeli Bertinelli, Maria Gabriella (Genoa)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Socii (Roman confederation) | | Commerce | Punic Wars | Regio, regiones (ancient Genua, modern Genova). Ligurian fortress on the harbour of Mandraccio, used in pre-Roman times by Etruscans and Massiliotes: pre-urban phase end of the 6th cent. BC; settled from the mid 5th cent. BC (wall remains, pottery, bronze and lead, statuette of a discus thrower, Etruscan inscriptions; necropoleis, cremations in ‘well graves’). It was an oppidum allied with Rome, in 218 BC the base of P.  Cornelius [I 68] Scipio against  H…