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Palmer, Christian David Friedrich

(219 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christian
[German Version] (Jan 27, 1811, Winnenden – May 29, 1875, Tübingen), professor of practical theology and ethics. Palmer came from a Pietist family. From 1828 to 1833 he studied theology in Tübingen, from 1834 to 1836 he was a private tutor in Bissingen and Plieningen, from 1836 tutor at the Protestant college in Tübingen, and from 1839 a deacon in Marbach. From 1843 he was deacon in Tübingen, and at the same time lecturer in pedagogics at Tübingen University, where in 1852 he was appointed to the …

German Catholicism

(561 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christian
[German Version] The term “German Catholicism” denotes a separatist movement among German Catholics between 1844 and 1850. It is often linked with the ecclesiastical, religious, political, and social upheavals of the mid-19th century. Hostile to Ultramontanism, it had roots in late rationalism and the emancipatory political ideals of the Vormärz era; in many ways it anticipated later Reform Catholicism. Two events, almost simultaneous, triggered the movement in the fall of 1844. The first was the attack leveled by J. Ronge, …

Gesellschaft für evangelische Theologie

(313 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christian
[German Version] (GET; Society for Protestant Theology). An association in the legal form of a registered society of theologians and lay persons (cf. Societies, Theological), constituted in ¶ February 1940 in Berlin from the ranks of the Confessing Church, by, among others, J. Beckmann, M. Fischer, Hans v. Soden, J. Schniewind and Ernst Wolf, who held the chair until 1971. Founded to “promote Protestant theology in the spirit of the Reformation and in the service of the Protestant church” (bylaws 1940), the GET seeks “to n…


(8,661 words)

Author(s): Baumann, Martin | Hezser, Catherine | Liss, Hanna | Schröter, Jens | Hauschild, Wolf-Dieter | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies In general usage, tradition (from Lat. transdare/ tradere, “hand on, transmit”) connotes retention and safeguarding, understood as a conservative handing down of mores, customs, norms, rules, and knowledge. The emphasis is on continuity with the past. Jan Assmann interprets tradition as an exemplary case of “cultural memory,” an enduring cultural construction of identity. In religions appeal to tradition is a prominent element justifying interpretations, practices, clai…

Grieshaber, Helmut Andreas Paul

(162 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christian
[German Version] (Feb 15, 1909, Rot an der Rot – May 12, 1981, Achalm near Reutlingen), a graphic artist, typesetter, painter, art teacher, lyricist and journalist. Grieshaber's extensive output of woodcuts unites the traditions of late Gothic woodcuts and of Reformation pamphlets with the media of Expressionism and Cubism. His forceful figurative idiom of forms dealt equally well with political messages and poetic encoding ( Der Engel der Geschichte [The angel of history], 1964–1982). Grieshaber also regularly found his themes in the Bible and the church and tr…


(10,627 words)

Author(s): Heller, Birgit | Gerstenberger, Erhard S. | Lichtenberger, Hermann | Greschat, Katharina | Markschies, Christoph | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. Old Testament – III. Primitive Christianity – IV. Church History – V. Judaism – VI. Islam – VII. Asia, Africa, and Latin America – VIII. Social Sciences – IX. Psychology – X. Philosophy of Religion – XI. Practical Theology I. Religious Studies To date there have been hardly any works devoted to men from the perspective of religious studies. Given the androcentrism of traditional scholarship, the category of homo religiosus has usually yielded knowledge of the religious male, but this work must …

Cultural Revolution

(456 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christian
[German Version] I. The term cultural revolution originated in Soviet Marxist-Leninist terminology of the 1920s. It refers to the effort to expand the effects of the October Revolution (Russia; Communism) beyond the political and economic realms and to extend them to cultural politics as a “Third Front.” In this respect, the emergence of the term marks a demarcation from the classical understanding of K. Marx and F. Engels according to which cultural developments …

National Psychology

(522 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christian
[German Version] (Ger. Völkerpschyologie), often called comparative psychology or folk psychology, is a branch of psychology founded in the mid-19th century by the philosopher M. Lazarus and the philologist H. Steinthal in a series of many individual studies. It explores the phenomena of mental life that arise inherently from a collective, even a whole nation or people – particularly language, religion, art, tradition, legal systems, customs, and the overall constitution of the household, society, …

Position Papers, German Protestant Churches

(774 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christian
[German Version] I. Church History Since 1962 the Evangelical Church in Germany (EKD) has developed and published a continuous series of what are now called position papers ( Denkschriften), in the form of studies, advisory opinions, or theses on currently controversial sociopolitical issues. These position papers in their unified style of reflection and presentation constitute a distinctive literary genre, a unique witness to Protestantism in the late 20th century. The term and concept, of course, are earlier. The positi…


(2,277 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Michael | Albrecht, Christian | Hauptmann, Peter
1. General In Late Antiquity, the term “catechism” (Latin  catechismus from Greek  katéchesis, “oral instruction”) came into use for the instruction of adult catechumens; when infant baptism was introducted in the 2nd/3rd century, it was applied to the instruction of the faithful (Catechetics). In the early modern era, the term came to be applied to systematically organized works designed for elementary religious instruction. Other terms used included  ench( e) iridion (Greek, “small handbook”),  institutio (Latin, “instruction”), and  summa (Latin, “sum”). Catec…
Date: 2019-10-14

Education, Protestant theory of

(1,670 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christian
1. Religious rootsThe early modern Protestant theory of education was not specifically bourgeois or political; it was conceived primarily in theological terms. Its development was intimately linked to the lifestyle and worldview of contemporary Christianity, especially Protestantism.The roots of the Protestant theory of education (Ger. Bildung) lay in the area of mystical theology. The Old High German noun  biliden, which already had a connection with  imago (“image”) and  forma (“form”) as well as  imitatio (“imitation”) and  formatio (“process of formation”); in …
Date: 2019-10-14

Occasional services

(1,503 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christian
1. DefinitionIn Protestant churches, occasional services (from Latin  casus, “case, occasion”) are worship services that unlike Sunday or Christmas services are not held on regularly recurring days but “on occasion” (as needed), especially on biographically significant occasions or at special public events or events in the life of the congregation. The core of the occasional services were the sacrament of baptism along with confirmation, weddings, and burials; there were also church dedications and vari…
Date: 2020-04-06


(1,412 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christian
1. BegriffUnter K. (von lat. casus, »Fall«) versteht man im Bereich der protest. Kirchen diejenigen Gottesdienste, die nicht (wie Sonntags- oder Weihnachtsgottesdienste) an regelmäßig wiederkehrenden Daten gefeiert werden, sondern »im Einzelfall« (bei Bedarf) durchgeführt werden, bes. zu biographisch wichtigen Anlässen oder zu speziellen kirchlich-gemeindlichen bzw. öffentlichen Ereignissen. Zum Kernbestand der K. wurden das Sakrament der Taufe sowie Konfirmation, Trauung und Bestattung gezählt, hinzu kommen etwa die Einweihung einer Kirche oder Bitt- un…
Date: 2019-11-19


(2,220 words)

Author(s): Fischer, Michael | Albrecht, Christian | Hauptmann, Peter
1. AllgemeinK. (lat. catechismus von griech. katḗchēsis, » mündlicher Unterricht«) bezeichnete seit der Spätantike den Unterricht des erwachsenen Taufbewerbers, seit Einführung der Säuglingstaufe im 2./3. Jh. die Unterweisung der Gläubigen ( Katechetik). In der Frühen Nz. bürgerte sich der Begriff zur Bezeichnung von systematisch gegliederten und didaktisch aufbereiteten Schriften religiöser Elementarunterweisung ein. Diese wurden auch ench(e)iridion (griech., »Handbüchlein«), institutio (lat., »Unterricht«) oder summa (lat., »Gesamtheit«) genannt. Adress…
Date: 2019-11-19

Protestantischer Bildungsbegriff

(1,516 words)

Author(s): Albrecht, Christian
1. Religiöse WurzelnDer nzl. P. B. war nicht spezifisch bürgerlich oder polit., sondern primär theologisch konzipiert. Seine Entwicklung hing aufs Engste mit der Lebenshaltung und Welteinstellung des nzl. Christentums zusammen, insbes. des Protestantismus.Der Ursprung des P. B. lag im mystisch-theologischen Bereich. Das ahdt. Grundwort biliden, das bereits ebenso einen Bezug auf imago (›Bild‹) und forma (›Gestalt‹) enthielt wie auf imitatio (›Nachahmung‹) und formatio (›Gestaltung‹), wurde in der spätma. Mystik mit Bezug auf Gen 1,27 und 2 Kor 3,18 zur C…
Date: 2019-11-19