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(4,151 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Koch, Dietrich-Alex | Brändle, Werner
[German Version] I. Religious Studies – II. New Testament – III. History – IV. Fundamental Theology – V. Dogmatics I. Religious Studies 1. Terminology The terms inspiration (from Lat. inspiratio, “insufflation”) and theopneusty come from the NT. Prophecy comes through the Holy Spirit (2 Pet 1:21); in 2 Tim 3:16, the adjective ϑεόπνευστος/ theópneustos) ¶ describes Scripture as being “inspired by God.” In many religions, we encounter the idea that communications enter the human sphere through the mediation of other entities. Plato ( Phaidr. 265) was already systematizing m…


(408 words)

Author(s): Brändle, Werner
[German Version] I. 1. Appropriation, the acquisition of a certain characteristic or capacity (Lat.: appropriatio), is a concept from the scholastic doctrine of the Trinity (cf. Thomas Aquinas, De veritate 7.3; Summa Theologiae I, 30,45.6f.); early Protestant Orthodoxy (cf. J. Gerhard, Loci theologici I, 203f.) and Catholic neoscholasticism (cf. B. Bartmanni, Dogmatik I, 57) also treated appropriation under the concept of, or distinguished from, the proprietates personales or the opera dei ad extra/ad intra. 2. The tradition distinguished b…


(1,320 words)

Author(s): Brändle, Werner | James, Aaron
[German Version] I. Systematic Theology – II. Ethics I. Systematic Theology The word “character” derives from Gk χαράσσειν ( charássein: “sharpen, carve, mark”) and means a note, a mark, a stamp; it also expresses a proprietary relationship, for example between master and slave (Seal/Stamp). Theophrastus (c. 300 bce) applied the term metaphorically to human types; since the French moralist La Bruyère ( Les caractères, 1688), it has been used to express the “characteristic” nature of an individual's desires and actions. Augustine used the term to explai…