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Mission

(10,463 words)

Author(s): Skreslet, Stanley H. | Gensichen, Hans-Werner | Scherer, James A.
1. Theology of Mission: Historical Development 1.1. Definition As a branch of missiology, the theology of mission is a discipline of faithful questioning that focuses on the basis, methods, and purpose(s) of Christian witness in all its forms. Most theologians of mission consider Scripture to be the normative text from which the proper foundation of mission should be drawn. In some traditions, definitive guidance for contemporary reflection on mission is also sought from patristic sources and/or magiste…

Schweitzer, Albert

(855 words)

Author(s): Gensichen, Hans-Werner
Albert Schweitzer (1875–1965) was a Protestant theologian, a physician, and an organist. After studying theology and philosophy in Strasbourg, Berlin, and Paris, Schweitzer became an assistant pastor in Strasbourg in 1899, a private lecturer in NT in 1902, and also director of the theological seminary in 1903. Theology, philosophy, and music were equally influential in shaping his life and thought. Schweitzer’s revolutionary contribution to theology was his continuation of J. Weiss’s understanding of “consistent eschatology,” combined with a comprehensiv…

Colonialism and Mission

(1,357 words)

Author(s): Gensichen, Hans-Werner
1. Methodology The dialectic of the colonial situation (K. J. Bade), whereby colonial systems finally defeat themselves, applies also to the relation between colonialism and mission. It prohibits both unhistorical generalizations and overhasty ideological judgments. We must distinguish between early Iberian colonialism, that of non–Roman Catholic states after the Reformation, and that of modern imperialism, each having its own unique relation with mission. Even then, our account will be fragmentary, since we do not have the sources for a fully satisfying presentation. 2. Earl…

Eucharist/Communion

(26,590 words)

Author(s): Hahn, Ferdinand | Markschies, Christoph | Angenendt, Arnold | Kaufmann, Thomas | Koch, Ernst | Et al.
[German Version] I. New Testament – II. Church History – III. Dogmatics – IV. Liturgical History – V. Practical Theology – VI. Missiology I. New Testament 1. Background Sacred meals are common to all religions. Before examining them in the context of the NT, it is necessary first to inquire into their background in the OT and in Judaism, whereupon it becomes evident that sacrificial meals play no role in them. Only the dai…

Persecutions of Christians

(4,158 words)

Author(s): Barceló, Pedro | Holze, Heinrich | Hummel, Karl-Joseph | Gensichen, Hans-Werner | Pointer, Richard W.
[German Version] I. Early Church During the period of the Early Church, the Roman state took violent measures against confessing adherents of Christianity, on the basis of a negative view of Christian congregations as groups of conspirators, since they refused to recognize the Roman gods or participate in the emperor cult. As a rule, adherence to Christianity was determined by judicial proceedings, the nature of which is quite clear from the Acts of the Martyrs. Additional sources include both pagan …

Evangelism

(4,028 words)

Author(s): Dorsett, Lyle W. | Moritzen, Niels-Peter | Guder, Darrell | Gensichen, Hans-Werner | Blaser, Klauspeter
[German Version] I. Fundamentals – II. History – III. Missiology and Practical Theology I. Fundamentals The term Evangelism is derived from the Greek verb εὐαγγελíζεσϑαι/ euangelízesthai, which means to proclaim the “good news” to outsiders. Jesus' proclamation in Luke 4:18 can already be understood as evangelism, since it aims to preach the gospel to the poor. The first disciples, according to Matt 28:19–2…

Decolonization and Mission

(1,063 words)

Author(s): Gensichen, Hans-Werner | Ramambason, Laurent W.
[German Version] I. History – II. Missiology I. History The term decolonization was first used in 1932 by the German researcher Moritz Bonn and was defined as “countercolonization.” In as far as the term is connected to a “transfer of power” on an international level, for example in the British Empire, decolonization marks a final stage in world and colonial history (Colonialism/Neocolonialis…

Comity

(186 words)

Author(s): Gensichen, Hans-Werner
[German Version] (demarcation and apportionment of missionary territories) began in the early 19th century as a practicable compromise between missionary rivalry (Mission), which appeared irresponsible, and a unity that did not yet exist. The concept was approved by the (Protestant) London Centenary Missions Conference in 1888. From the original makeshift “geographical denominationalism” with predominantly negative emphasis on mutual territorial restrictio…

Deutsche Gesellschaft für Missionswissenschaft

(162 words)

Author(s): Gensichen, Hans-Werner
[German Version] (DGMW; German Society for Mission Studies) was ¶ founded in Berlin in 1918, shortly before the end of World War I, by a small circle of specialists on the initiative of the Göttingen church historian C. Mirbt. It was the first association of its kind anywhere in the world. Between the wars, it was only able to publish two series of missiological studi…

Brent, Charles Henry

(217 words)

Author(s): Gensichen, Hans-Werner
[German Version] (Apr 9, 1862 Newcastle, Ontario – Mar 27, 1929 Lausanne) was a leading American representative of the Ecumenical Movement. In 1887, after theological study in Canada, he was ordained in the Protestant Episcopal Church in the USA, and in 1901 he was consecrated as the first Anglican bishop of the Philippines, where he campaigned against the opi…