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(873 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
(Θεαγένης/ Theagénēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Megara, 7th cent. BC Tyrant of Megara [2] in the last quarter of the 7th cent. BC; he probably descended from a noble family and maintained hospitality with aristocrats all over Greece. According to a later tradition, when he seized power, he is said to have won the people's confidence in his fight against the city's landowners (by slaughtering their flocks: Aristot. Pol. 5,1305a 21-26) and to have been granted a body guard by the assembly (Aristot. Rh.…


(640 words)

Author(s): Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony)
[German version] The theory of cosmopolitanism (etymology: kósmos, ‘world’, and polítēs, ‘citizen’) had already been developed in the pre-Hellenistic period by the sophist  Hippias [5] of Elis (late 5th cent. BC), who disputed the authority of positive law in favour of unwritten laws.  Democritus [1] of Abdera declared that the entire earth was open to the wise man and that the home of a good soul is the universe (fr. 247 DK). If one wishes to believe Cicero (Tusc. 5,108), Socrates, a contemporary of Democritus, also considered himself a ‘citizen of the World’ ( mundi incolam et civem). The …
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