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Marriage Ceremonies

(4,074 words)

Author(s): Idelberger, Petra | Grethlein, Christian | Hofhansl, Ernst W. | Steck, Wolfgang | Winter, Jörg | Et al.
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Church History – III. Practical Theology – IV. Liturgics – V. Law – VI. Orthodox Church – VII. Judaism – VIII. Islam I. History of Religion In Christendom marriage was considered a secular act until well into the Middle Ages, before it was declared a sacrament in 1184. Many religions view marriage as a religious duty, and nuptial rites (Rites of passage; see III below) often have sacral character, but civil marriages are also obligatory in certain countries. Regulations gover…

Matriarchy and Patriarchy

(550 words)

Author(s): Idelberger, Petra
[German Version] The terms matriarchy and patriarchy refer to the social position of the mother or father, determined by such phenomena as the matrilineal or patrilineal definition of kinship, the social status of the child, and the principle of hereditary succession. Marriage itself may be matrilocal or patrilocal. The conditions of such social norms define the role of the wife or husband in society and politics, in economic production, and in sexual self-determination; they also shape religious and …