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Gildas

(154 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Oldest historian of the Britons with the epithet Sapiens. G. was a Romanized Celt from western Britain, was born before AD 504 and wrote before 547, as a Christian who was fully committed to Roman culture, the work De excidio et conquestu Britanniae that was important for the history of the island during and after the decline of Roman rule. A description of the topography is followed by the history in Roman times, emphasizing the events of Church history. The invasion of the Anglo-Saxons is interpreted as a punishment fro…

Aegidius

(121 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Gallic aristocrat, named comes et magister utriusque militiae per Gallias by emperor  Maiorianus in AD 456 or 457, lost Cologne to the Franks, wrested Lyon from the Burgundians in 458 and defended Arles against the West Goths, whom he defeated in 463 in league with the Salic king Childerich at Orléans. In 461 he refused to recognize Maiorianus' successor and created for himself in North Gallia an independent power base centred in Soisson, which he, until his death in 464/65, asserted above…

Laterculum

(253 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Attested in the general sense of ‘list’ from Tertullianus (Ad nat. 1,13), common as a technical term for the list of all civil and military office bearers from the 4th cent. AD. In the notitia dignitatum , among the insignia of the primicerius notariorum a codex-like object (probably a container for loose sheets) with the supplement laterculum maius (Not. Dign. Or. 18,2; Not. Dign. Occ. 16,3) is to be found. It was the list of the high imperial offices, presumably kept by the most senior notary from the time of Constantinus [1] I, as it…

Anthemius

(604 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
[German version] [1] Praefectus praetorio Orientis 405-414 AD Probably sent to Persia as an envoy in AD 383, comes sacrarum larg. (eastern region) in AD 400; magister officiorum (eastern region) at the latest in AD 404, cos. 405; at the latest from AD 406 patricius. A. gained considerable political influence in his role as praefectus praetorio Orientis from AD 405-414, initially under Arcadius, later under the underage Theodosius II. He was a Christian, but looked upon pagan culture with an open mind [1. 82 f.]. Through the building of walls, he took…

Heraclius [1-7]

(1,041 words)

Author(s): Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna) | Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
(Ἡράκλειος; Hērákleios). Two prominent Sicilians known from the trial of  Verres in 70 BC: [German version] [1] Citizen of Syracuse, 1st cent. BC The son of a certain Hieron, a wealthy citizen of Syracuse. In 73 BC he inherited from a homonymous relative a magnificent house including furnishings and 3 million sesterces (Cic. Verr. 2,14,35). Because of the machinations of Verres, who contested the will, H. lost his wealth and the inheritance. The real estate was returned to him by L. Caecilius [I 13] Metellus, the successor of Verres (Cic. Verr. 2,19,47-50; 25,62). Meister, Klaus (Berlin) …

Notitia urbis Constantinopolitanae

(78 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] The NUC is a description of the 14 regions of Constantinopolis with their churches, palaces, baths, etc., as well as a listing of municipal officials. This compilation, written in Latin, was drawn up under the Emperor Theodosius II around AD 425. Notitia dignitatum; Theodosius II Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) Bibliography Edition: O. Seeck, Notitia dignitatum, 1876, 227-243. Literature: P. Speck, Zur Datierung der N.u.C., in: H.-G. Beck (ed.), Studien zur Frühgeschichte Konstantinopels, 1973, 144ff.

Zemarchus

(125 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] (Ζήμαρχος/ Zḗmarchos). Magister militum per Orientem under the emperor Iustinus [4] II, a Cilician by origin who led a legation to the khan Sizabulus of the Turks (AD 552-576) to the central Asiatic region of Sogdiana in the years 569-571/2, rather than 568/9. He took part in Sizabulus' campaign against the Persians, concluded a treaty with the Turks and returned after an adventuresome voyage over the Volga. The account of this legation is very important for its information about the T…

Germany

(31,487 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) | Johne, Renate (Berlin RWG) | Aurnhammer, Achim (Freiburg i. Br. RWG) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Holtermann, Martin (Mannheim RWG) | Et al.
Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin) I. To 1600 (CT) [German version] A. History and Social Development under Carolingian Rule to 918 (CT) The coronation of Charlemagne as emperor (800) laid the foundation for the medieval German empire. In a lengthy process, the German people evolved from those Germanic tribes that had remained settled during the great migration of the peoples, together with some foederati, Rome's former allies. Larger communities developed around many villae, still evident in some place names, particularly in the Rhineland, but settlements also develope…

Lagodius

(65 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] Spanish relative, probably cousin, of the emperor Honorius [3]; after the collapse of the resistance put up by his brothers Didymus and Verenianus against the usurper Constantinus [3] III in Spain in AD 408/9, he fled to the eastern part of the Empire (Zos. 6,4,4; Sozom. Hist. eccl. 9,12,1; cf. Oros. 7,40,5-8). PLRE 2,654; cf. 358, 1099, 1155. Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)

Historia Augusta

(1,505 words)

Author(s): Johne, Klaus-Peter (Berlin)
[German version] A. Work Historia Augusta (HA) is the modern title of the Scriptores historiae Augustae (SHA), as Casaubonus in 1603, following the Vita Taciti (10,3), named the six otherwise unknown authors Aelius Spartianus, Iulius Capitolinus, Vulcacius Gallicanus, Aelius Lampridius, Trebellius Pollio and Flavius Vopiscus from Syracuse. They feature as the compilers of a collection of  biographies of Roman emperors, heirs apparent and usurpers from the time of Hadrian (AD 117-138) to Numerianus and Carinus (283-284/…
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