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Free Churches

(3,048 words)

Author(s): Larsen, Timothy | Fix, Karl-Heinz | Grethlein, Christian
[German Version] I. Church History – II. Practical Theology – III. Missions in the Free Churches I. Church History 1. General Free churches are non-established Protestant bodies in countries or regions where there is a Protestant state church or regional churches. The term is often used more loosely, however, and is liable to impose discontinuities through geographical or political changes which do not correspond to the heritage and sense of identity of particular religious communities. For example, the Evangelic…

Forsyth, Peter Taylor

(158 words)

Author(s): Larsen, Timothy
[German Version] (May 12, 1848, Aberdeen – Nov 11, 1921, London), Congregationalist minister and theologian. He studied at Aberdeen University first, then under A. Ritschl in Göttingen. He was pastor at various Congregationalist churches (Congregationalism) during the waning years of Victorian England. ¶ From 1901 he was rector of Hackney College in north London. As a theologian, he bypassed the trends of liberal theology in concentrating on such themes as God's holiness, human sinfulness, and atonement (England, Theology in). His most influential works include The Cruciality o…

Huxley, Thomas Henry

(147 words)

Author(s): Larsen, Timothy
[German Version] (May 4, 1825, Ealing near London – Jun 29, 1895, Eastbourne), scientist and controversialist; after studying medicine he entered the navy. In 1854 he joined the faculty of the Government School of Mines and remained there for the rest of his career, though he also accepted numerous other positions. The honors he attained included a presidency of the Royal Society and the office of privy councilor. He made his popular reputation as a militant proponent of Darwinism. A staunch skept…

Gladstone, William Ewart

(171 words)

Author(s): Larsen, Timothy
[German Version] (Dec 29, 1809, Liverpool – May 19, 1898, Hawarden, Wales), British politician. He studied in Oxford, sat in Parliament almost without interruption from 1833 to 1895, and held the office of prime minister four times. After 1846, Gladstone distanced himself from the conservatives and took over the leadership of the Liberal party. As a young politician, this pious Anglican of High Church orientation (High Church Movement: I) published an essay on the relationship between church and state ( The State in its Relations with the Church, 1838), in which he spoke out in fa…

Ludlow, John Malcolm Forbes

(154 words)

Author(s): Larsen, Timothy
[German Version] (Mar 8, 1821, Nimach, India – Oct 17, 1911, London, England) was a Christian socialist, born to English parents, but raised in Paris, where he studied at the Collège Bourbon. From 1838 he was entered at Lincoln's Inn, becoming a barrister in 1843. He became a devoted disciple of F.D. Maurice, facilitating the gathering of a group of like-minded men around Maurice. Ludlow was the architect and builder of the resulting Christian socialist movement (Socialism), which began in 1848. In 1850 he founded the Christian Socialist journal. He deserves most of the credit for…