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Aelia

(294 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Second wife of Sulla Second wife of Sulla (Plut. Sull. 6,20). Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [2] Galla Wife of one Postumus (Augustan period) Wife of one Postumus = ? C. Propertius Postumus, Prop. 3,12,38; related to members of the senatorial Aelii of the Augustan period [1; 2]. Eck, Werner (Cologne) [German version] [3] Paetina, second wife of  Claudius Ae. Paetina. Probably daughter of Sex. Aelius Catus; second wife of  Claudius, who separated from her (Suet. Claud. 26,2). They had a daughter  Antonia [5].  Narcissus …

Caesarius

(708 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Uthemann, Karl-Heinz (Amsterdam)
[German version] [1] Official, 4th cent. AD Hailing from Cilicia, C. was educated in Antioch (Lib. Ep. 1399). He was a brother of  Alypius (Jul. Ep. 9-10). In AD 362-363, he was possibly vicarius Asiae (Lib. Ep. 764; 1384). After the death of  Iulianus, he became comes rerum privatarum (Cod. Theod. 10,1,8) and gained great influence at the court of Valens (Lib. Ep. 1449; 1456). As

Phaleas

(215 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] (Φαλέας; Phaléas) of Chalcedon. Greek thinker (5th cent. or 1st half of the 4th cent. BC) who concerned himself with polis structures but should probably not be regarded as one of the Sophists. On the basis of the little information that Aristotle [6] (Pol. 2,7,1266a 39-1267b 21; 1274b 9; cf. Diels/Kranz 39,1) provides in a polemical and perhaps distorted form, P. (neglecting warfare) developed a highly differentiated concept of the polis based on the idea - allegedly formulated by…

Dalmatius

(366 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Fl. D. Half-brother of the Emperor Constantine I Son of  Constantius [1] and Theodora, half-brother of Constantine I. Nothing is known of his role in the initial period of Constantine's rule, although presumably he was given Toulouse as his abode during the tensions with Licinius in c. AD 320-324 (Auson. Prof. 16,11-12). Consul in 333, he was sent to Antioch at around the same time with the archaizing title of censor (Athan. c. Ar. 65,1ff.). There he was concerned with murder accusations against Athanasius. In Tarsus he had  Calocaerus burnt to d…

Stratiotika, Stratiotikon

(375 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] (στρατιωτικά, pl. = stratiōtiká, στρατιωτικόν, sing. = stratiōtikón). The stratiotika were financial resources available for military purposes in the city of Athens from a fund (the stratiotikon) which was historically closely connected with the development of the festival fund ( theōrikón ). The stratiotikon probably served the flexible management of expenditure in times of war, freeing it from the rigidity of the usual system for distributing tax incomes ( merismós). The stratiotikon may also have served as a counterweight to the theorikon. The first pieces o…

Ravenna Papyri

(115 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Collection, now dispersed but at the time comprising 61 items, of non-literary Latin texts on papyrus from the period AD 433 - c. 700, the predominant majority of which probably belonged to an archive in Ravenna. The RP are an important source for the social, economic and administrative history of Italy in the transition period from Antiquity to the Middle Ages. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography J.-O. Tjäder, Die nicht-literarischen Papyri Italiens aus der Zeit 445-700, 2 vols., 1955, 1982  Papyrus Erzherzog Rainer. FS zum 100j. Bestehen der Papyrus-Sa…

Asterius

(429 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Seibt, Klaus (Leonberg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Ἀστέριος; Astérios). [German version] [1] Cretan epiclesis of Zeus A Cretan epiclesis of Zeus, attested to only in the Byzantine writers; it arose through euhemeristic interpretation of the myth of Asterion [1]. In contrast to this view, evolutionist interpretations regarded him the origin of that hero. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography H. Schwabl, s.v. Zeus I, RE 10 A, 281. [German version] [2] Sophis from Cappadocia Sophist from Cappadocia, belonged to the circle of students of Lucianus of Antioch (martyr AD 312) from whom came the spokesmen for the …

Orestes

(1,134 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Ὀρέστης; Oréstēs). [German version] [1] Son of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra Son of Agamemnon and Clytaemnestra, who took brutal revenge on his mother and her lover Aegisthus for the murder of his father. The story, which is told in the Nostoi (EpGF p. 67,25-27; PEG I p. 95), was already familiar to the author of the Odyssey (Hom. Od. 1,29ff., 298ff.; 3,193ff., 248ff., 303ff.; 4,90-92, 512ff.; 11,387ff.; 24,20ff., 93ff., 192ff.); depending on the context, the story serves as a foil, either negatively for Penelope, the faithful wife (vs. Clytaemnestra…

Lupicinus

(144 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Consul 367 AD Assigned to Iulianus [11] as Magister Equitum per Gallias, L. fought against the Alamanni in AD 359 and against the Scots and Picts in 360. L. was imprisoned by Julian as a potential opponent. Iovianus made him mag. equitum per Orientem in 363. In 365/6 in this office he was involved in the suppression of the usurpation of Procopius against Valens. In 367 Consul. Christ. PLRE 1520f. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Comes rei militaris per Thracias in 377 AD Product of the schola gentilium, in AD 377 comes rei militaris per Thracias. L. drove t…

Romulus

(2,313 words)

Author(s): Bendlin, Andreas (Erfurt) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Küppers, Jochem (Düsseldorf)
[German version] [1] Legendary founder of Rome The legendary founder of Rome. Perhaps literally 'the Roman'. A possible correspondence between the Etruscan nomen gentile Rumelna (Volsinii, 6th cent. BC: ET Vs 1,35) and the alleged Roman nomen gentile Romilius - the name is securely attested only in an old tribus Romilia/-ulia (Paul Fest. 331 L.) - and between R. and an Etruscan praenomen * Rumele [1. 31 f.] proves nothing about the historicity of the figure of R. Also problematic is the attempt [2. 491-520; 3. 95-150] to connect the finds from the Roman Mon…

Aetius

(1,578 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Runia, David T. (Leiden) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Ἀέτιος; Aétios). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Troezen Son of Anthas, mythical king of Troezen; his successors colonized Halicarnass and Myndus in Caria (Paus. 2,30,8 f.). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] Doxographer of 1st cent. AD Doxographer of 1st cent. AD. Although historically elusive, A. played a central role in the doxographic tradition of antiquity, because he wrote the only detailed doxographic manual to have been handed down fairly complete ( Doxography). Large parts of the work can be quite accur…

Deliciae

(381 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] (Also delicia, esp. on inscriptions [2]; but cf. [1. 2437]; see also Plut. Anton. 59,4, delicium, delicati). Children, mostly of unfree origin, who lived in rich households for the entertainment of their owners, particularly during the Imperial period. They were brought up in the paedagogium. The pupulus in Catull. 56,5 might be understood as an early example. They were esp. valued for their garrulitas, their impertinent loquacity (Suet. Aug. 83; Sen. De constantia sapientis 11,3; Stat. Silv. 2,1,45). Beautiful, beardless, long-haired boys (…

Philometor

(201 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Φιλομήτωρ/ Philomḗtōr, lit. 'the mother-lover'). [German version] [1] Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers Cultic sobriquet of Greek rulers, firstly of Ptolemaeus VI, whose reign began under the regency of his mother. For many of the subsequent kings (e.g. Ptolemaeus VIII, X, XV, Cleopatra [II 12] VII, Antiochus [10] VIII, Demetrius [9] III), the statement of Gutschmid [1. 112] is valid, namely that they ruled at first under the guardianship of their mothers. There are also Egyptian connotations to the name ( Kamutef, 'the bull of his mother' [sc. Isis]), intended to show tha…

Eudocia

(467 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Strothmann, Meret (Bochum)
(Εὐδοκία; Eudokía). [German version] [1] Aelia Eudocia. Original name Athenais. Came from a traditional background in Athens (her father was the rhetor Leontius) and had an excellent education. Allegedly at the instigation of  Pulcheria, she married  Theodosius II on 7 June 421; she was baptized for this purpose and given the name Aelia E. She was considered pious and increasingly exerted an influence on her husband, pushing aside Pulcheria. In 422 she gave birth to  Eudoxia [2] and before 431 to Flacc…

Theagenes

(873 words)

Author(s): Patzek, Barbara (Wiesbaden) | Matthaios, Stephanos (Cologne) | Beck, Hans (Cologne) | Goulet-Cazé, Marie-Odile (Antony) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
(Θεαγένης/ Theagénēs). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Megara, 7th cent. BC Tyrant of Megara [2] in the last quarter of the 7th cent. BC; he probably descended from a noble family and maintained hospitality with aristocrats all over Greece. According to a later tradition, when he seized power, he is said to have won the people's confidence in his fight against the city's landowners (by slaughtering their flocks: Aristot. Pol. 5,1305a 21-26) and to have been granted a body guard by the assembly (Aristot. Rh.…

Agricola

(107 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Cognomen e.g. of the Atilii, Calpurnii, Iulii, Virii. [German version] [1] AD 418 praef. praetorio II in Gallia [1] AD 418 praef. praetorio II in Gallia [1], 421 cos. (PLRE 2, 36 f.) Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Son of the emperor  Avitus, 5th cent. AD Son of the emperor  Avitus (AD 455/6), brother of Ecdicius and Papianilla. He probably held a high office ( vir inlustris), later he became a clergyman; he was correspondent of his brother-in-law  Sidonius Apollinaris (epist. 1,2; 2,12; PLRE 2, 37 A. 2). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 R. v. Haehling, Religio…

Felix

(619 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Michel, Simone (Hamburg) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Fröhlich, Roland (Tübingen) | Et al.
Roman cognomen (‘The Fortunate One’), in the Republican period initially an epithet of the dictator L. Cornelius [I 90] Sulla and his descendants (Cornelius [II 59-61]); in the Imperial period, as a name invoking luck, one of the most common cognomina and the most common slave name. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period Gem-cutter of the Roman Republican period, probably a contemporary of  Dioscurides [8], named together with  Anteros in an inscription as a gemari de sacra via [1. 44 and note 40]. He signed the famous sard…

Nepos

(785 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eigler, Ulrich (Zürich) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman cognomen, epithet of Q. Caecilius Metellus N. and his son Roman cognomen (‘grandson’) to distinguish a boy from his father and grandfather of the same name. Epithet of Q. Caecilius [I 28] Metellus N. and his homonymous son [I 29]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) Bibliography Kajanto, Cognomina, 79; 304. [German version] [2] Cornelius N. Biographer and historian, 1st cent. BC ( c. 100-24 BC) represents the dynamic of intellectual culture in Rome during the 1st cent. BC. He hailed from the Transpadana region and was an equestrian. N. …

Maximus

(3,163 words)

Author(s): Trapp, Michael (London) | Hübner, Wolfgang (Münster) | Brisson, Luc (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μάξιμος; Máximos) [German version] [I 1] Maximus of Tyre Author of lectures mainly on ethics and theology, 2nd cent. AD, [1] Maximus of Tyrus AD 2nd cent.; author of 41 short dialéxeis (lectures), according to the most important MS (Cod. Parisinus graecus 1962) delivered in Rome (the Suda dates a visit to the reign of Commodus, AD 180-191). His concepts are simple yet rhetorically sophisticated (frequent use of comparisons, quotations from poetry, mythological and historical examples); his main topic is…

Gratianus

(770 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Father of the emperors Valens and Valentinianus The father of emperors  Valens and  Valentinianus. Born near Cibalae. A man of low origins who rose in the military: between AD 305 and 316 he was protector domesticus in Salona, in about 321 tribunus in Illyricum, later comes in Africa and Britain. In 350/1 he was as a private person host to the usurper  Magnentius and was punished with confiscation of his property. His sons arranged for an honourable memorial. PLRE 1, 400f. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Flavius G. West-Rom. emperor AD 367-383 Roman emp…

Basilius

(1,337 words)

Author(s): Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Savvidis, Kyriakos (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich) | Et al.
(Βασιλεῖος; Basileîos). [German version] [1] Basil the Great Theologian and bishop of Caesarea/Cappadocia. Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) [German version] A. Biography B. (born around 329/330 as the son of a Christian senatorial family who owned large estates) together with his younger brother  Gregorius of Nyssa and his friend  Gregorius of Nazianze were called the three great Cappadocians. His grandmother gave him his first introduction to the Bible and theology along the lines of Origenism. His education contin…

Syagrius

(213 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Procos. Africae in 379 AD In AD 379 procos. Africae, in 380-382 praetorian prefect, in 381 cos. The assignment of offices is debatable, since S. [2] became prominent at the same time. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Correspondent of Q. A. Symmachus [4] Eusebius, 4th cent. In AD 369 dishonourably dismissed as a notarius; in 379-381 (?) magister officiorum, in 381 city prefect in Rome, in 382 cos. Correspondent of Q. A. Symmachus [4] Eusebius. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography Clauss, 192 f.  A. Demandt, Die Konsuln der Jahre 381 und 382…

Ex(s)uperantius

(56 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] see  Iulius E. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Praef. praet. Galliarum AD 424/5 Originally from Poitiers; after internal unrest in AD 417, he tried to restore order in Aremorica. In 424/5 praef. praet. Galliarum, he was beaten to death during a mutiny in Arelate. PLRE 2, 448. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Victorius

(100 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Gallo-Roman friend of Sidonius Apollinaris. Although Catholic, from about AD 471 he was in the service of the Arian Visigoth Euricus. There is evidence of his holding the titles dux and comes . He had responsibility super septem civitates in Aquitania I and after the latter was subjugated by the Visigoths from c. 475 also for Augustonemetum (Clermont). V. came to prominence by endowing churches. His autocratic tendencies and his dissipated way of life made him suspect, so that he ran away to Rome, where he was murdered (in 479?) (PLRE 2, 1162-1164, no. 4). Leppin, Hartmut…

Aurelianus

(953 words)

Author(s): Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Aurelius A. Cos. suff. 180/182 AD Praetorian legate of Arabia under two Augusti (AE 1965, 23); cos. suff. between AD 180 and 182 (CIL VIII 10570=ILS 6870). PIR2 A 1424. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [2] Consular senator, executed around 217/18 AD Consular senator. His execution, demanded by the soldiers, was at first refused by Emperor  Macrinus (217-18) (Cass. Dio 78,12,4), but was probably carried out soon thereafter (Cass. Dio 78,19,1). PIR2 A 1425. Birley, A. R. (Düsseldorf) [German version] [3] Imperator Caes. L. Domitius A. Augustus Born…

Hellebic(h)us

(85 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Bearer of a Germanic name; attested as comes et magister utriusque militiae per Orientem from AD 383 to 387; a proponent of euergetism in Antioch. Together with  Caesarius [3], in 387 conducted the investigations after the Antioch statue revolt.  Libanius thanked him with a panegyric for having achieved lenient actions (Or. 22). H. corresponded with Libanius (Ep. 2; 868; 884; 898; 925) and  Gregorius [3] of Nazianzus (Ep. 225). Probably a Christian [1]. (PLRE 1,277f.). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 v. Haehling 265-267.

Spectacles

(2,627 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
I. Principal types [German version] A. Greece Fundamental to Greek spectator events was the distinction between gymnic, hippic and musical agons (Competitions, artistic). All games emerged from cult, whether of the dead or of the gods. They remained connected with the cult and took place in conjunction with festivals (Festivals, ‘Festival culture’). The presentation of gymnic and hippic games (e.g. chariot races, Hom. Il. 23,257-538; Sports festivals), and of choral agons (Hom. Od. 8,256-366) is already found in Homer. Hesiod attests to a musical agon (Hes. Op. 650-659). In the Arc…

Volusianus

(331 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Roman emperor AD 251-253 Imp. Caes. C. Vibius Afinius Gallus Veldumnianus V. P. F. Invictus Aug. (RIC 4,3, 173-189). Roman emperor from the middle of AD 251 until the middle of 253. Born c. 230 in Perusia (?), the son of Trebonianus Gallus and Afinia Gemina Baebiana. After the battle of Abritus against the Goths and the death of Decius [II 1], the legions proclaimed him and his father emperor in June 251 (Eutr. 9,5; Zon. 12,21 D.); at the same time, he was appointed Caesar by his father (Aur. Vict. Caes. 30)…

Constantinus

(2,742 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Tinnefeld, Franz (Munich)
[German version] [1] C. I. The Great, Roman Emperor AD 306-337 ‘the Great’, Roman emperor from AD 306-337. Born c. 275 (Euseb. Vita Const. 4,53; Aur. Vict. Caes. 41,16; [Aur. Vict.] Epit. Caes. 41,15, differently Euseb. Vita Const. 2,51) at Naïssus (Anon. Vales. 2) the son of Constantius [1] I and of Helena. After his father was made Caesar, Constantine served on the staff of  Diocletian and of  Galerius (Pan. Lat. 7[6] 5,3; Lactant. De mort. pers. 18,10; Anon. Vales. 2). In 305 he left the court of Galerius to jo…

Placidia

(163 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] See Galla [3] Placidia See Galla [3] Placidia. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Relative of the imperial family (5th cent. AD) Younger daughter of Valentinianus [4] III and Eudoxia [2], b. AD 441/2. First betrothed to the son of Aetius [5], Petronius Maximus [II 8] apparently forced her into a marriage with his son ([2. 180f.]). In 455, she was taken hostage by the Vandals as they overran Rome; she was released to Constantinople in 462. Probably already married to Anicius [II 15] Olyb…

Marcellinus

(1,752 words)

Author(s): Nutton, Vivian (London) | Damschen, Gregor (Halle/Saale) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Wermelinger, Otto (Fribourg) | Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρκελλῖνος; Markellînos). [German version] [I 1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses, 2nd cent. AD?, [1] Greek author of a treatise on pulses. His reference to followers of Archigenes suggests the late 1st or 2nd cent. AD as the earliest date of its composition. A more precise dating would be possible if he were the author of a recipe quoted by Galen (De compositione medicamentorum secundum locos 7,5 = 13,90 K.) from Andromachus [5] the Younger, but the identification is uncertain. M.'s …

Eucherius

(333 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Berschin, Walter (Heidelberg)
[German version] [1] Uncle of emperor Theodosius I Flavius E. was an uncle of emperor Theodosius I (Them. Or. 16,203d). He is possibly identical with the comes sacrarum largitionum of AD 377-379 (Cod. Theod. 1,32,3; 10,20,9). In 381 he was consul (Them. ibid.). He was still alive in 395 (Zos. 5,2,3). PLRE 1, 288 E. (2). Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Son of Stilicho, about AD 390 Flavius E., the son of  Stilicho and Serena, born AD 389 in Rome. He first lived in Constantinople, then at the court of  Honorius, where he became tribunus et notarius. In 400 he became engaged wi…

Lucianus

(4,158 words)

Author(s): Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Markschies, Christoph (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Λουκιανός; Loukianós). [German version] [1] L. of Samosata Greek rhetorical-satirical writer, 2nd cent. AD Important Greek rhetorical-satirical writer of the Roman Imperial period. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) [German version] A. Life and career L. was born between AD 115 and 125 [4. 8] in Samosata on the Euphrates, on the eastern edge of Roman Syria. Περὶ τοῦ ἐνυπνίου ἦτοι Βίος Λουκιανοῦ (‘The Dream, or Lucian's Life’, Somn.) portrays vividly (but not necessarily truthfully) L.'s decision for an education modelled on the example of the great classical authors ( paideía)…

Castinus

(82 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Flavius C., in 420/21 worked as a comes domesticus in Gaul; in 422 as mag. militum of the  Honorius he unsuccessfully fought the Vandals at the Baetica, he fell out with  Bonifatius who evaded him and went to Africa. In 423 C. probably supported the usurpation of  Iohannes and remained in office, becoming cos. in 424 but achieving no recognition in the East [1. 383]. Later C. fled -- supposedly to Africa (PLRE 2, 269f.). Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 Bagnall.

Marinus

(2,215 words)

Author(s): Gärtner, Hans Armin (Heidelberg) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Rist, Josef (Würzburg) | Saffrey, Henri D. (Paris) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Et al.
[German version] I. Greek (Μαρῖνος; Marînos). [German version] [I 1] M. of Tyre Greek geographer, 2nd cent. AD Greek geographer, known only through his immediate successor Claudius Ptolemaeus, who mentions M. as a source in his ‘Introduction to the Representation of the Earth (γεωγραφικὴ ὑφήγησις/ geōgraphikḗ hyphḗgēsis, = ‘G.). Arabic texts which mention M. all trace back to the ‘G. [8. 189]. Place names used by M. allow his work to be dated to between AD 107 and 114/5; cities are mentioned with the name of Trajan refering to his Dacian Wars (ended AD 107…

Africanus

(177 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Originally the epithet of a victor, first assumed by P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Maior) after the victory over Carthage in 201 BC (Liv. 30,45,6), then assumed by his adoptive son P. Cornelius Scipio A. (Minor), cos. 147; later as surname also in other families [1]. In the imperial era surname of the emperors Gordian I and II, Justinian I and Flavius Mauricius. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) [German version] [1] Greek doctor 2nd or 1st cent. BC Greek doctor of the 2nd or 1st cent. BC, who dedicated a few of his prescriptions to a king Antigonus [1]. Not to be confused with a…

Panodorus

(74 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Monk from Alexandria who lived in around AD 400. Following on from Sextus Iulius Africanus and Eusebius [7], both of whose works he also revised, he wrote a history of the world, the influence of which is evident in George Syncellus [2], although there is disagreement as to its precise significance. P. was particularly interested in questions concerning the dating of events. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography W. Adler, Time Immemorial, 1989, 72ff.

Hesperius

(70 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Decimius Hilarianus H., son of  Ausonius. One of those family members who profited from Ausonius' proximity to emperor  Gratianus [2]. In AD 376/7 documented as proconsul Africae and 377-380 as Praetorian Prefect in the West with varying jurisdiction. Corresponded with Symmachus (Epist. 1,75-88). Epist. 19/20 Mondin (= 16/18 Prete) by Ausonius are addressed to him. Probably a Christian [1]. PLRE 1,427f. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) Bibliography 1 v. Haehling, 298f.

Gomoarius

(79 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Of Germanic descent; tribunus scutariorum in AD 350.; a follower of  Vetranio, whom he betrayed to  Constantius [2] II. In 360 magister militum of the emperor  Iulianus; when the emperor removed him from office in the following spring, G. switched his allegiance to Constantius II. In 365/366, G. served as magister militum of the usurper  Procopius, in whose defeat G.'s switch of allegiance to  Valens played a decisive part. PLRE 1, 397f. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Edobicus

(60 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Franc, mag. militum of  Constantinus [3] III, whom he freed from Valencia in AD 407. E. tried to win the Germani as allies. During his attempt to relieve the usurper who was besieged in Arelate, he was defeated by  Constantius [6] III and Ulfila, and was killed while attempting to escape in 411. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Valens

(948 words)

Author(s): Franke, Thomas (Bochum) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Letsch-Brunner, Silvia (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Rival emperor to Gallienus, 3rd cent. AD As proconsul of Achaia, V. had himself proclaimed rival emperor to Gallienus in AD 261 in Macedonia. Although he defeated Piso, who was sent there against him (PIR2 C 298), he was soon murdered by his own troops (Aur. Vict. Epit. Caes. 32,4; Amm. Marc. 21,16,10; SHA Tyr. Trig. 19; 21; SHA Gall. 2,2 f.). Franke, Thomas (Bochum) Bibliography Kienast 2 227  PIR V 7  PLRE 1, 929 f. [German version] [2] Flavius Valens Eastern Roman emperor AD 364-378. Born in 321 in Cibalae (Illyria), of lowly origins and without a prof…

Symmachus

(1,389 words)

Author(s): Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf) | Lehnardt, Andreas | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] I. Greek (Σύμμαχος/ Sýmmachos). [German version] [I 1] Author of a commentary on Aristophanes, 1st half of the 2nd cent. No later than the first half of the 2nd cent. AD (citation in Herodian. 2,945-946 Lentz); author of a commentary on Aristophanes [3], frequently used in Late Antiquity and Byzantine scholia literature ( subscriptio Schol. Aristoph. Av.; Nub.; Pax). It remains unclear whether S. also commented on comedies which do not survive [2. 1138 f.]. Of the 41 (factual) explanations attributed to S. by name in the Aristophane…

Caecilianus

(269 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Bishop of Carthage, from AD 311/12 In 311/312 (according to [1] around 309/310), C. was ordained bishop of Carthage by Felix of Apthugni. A council of 70 bishops under the leadership of the Numidian primate Secundus of Tigisi declared C.'s election invalid and accused Felix of traditio. In his place, Maiorinus was elected at first, with (313)  Donatus following shortly afterwards. Emperor Constantine declared his support for C. (cf. especially Constantine's letter in Euseb. Hist. eccl. 10,5,15-17; 10,6f.). The dispute with…

Cerialis

(149 words)

Author(s): Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) | Bloch, René (Berne)
Roman cognomen (also Caerialis, Caerealis) of Latin origin, derived from the adjectival Cerealis (‘belonging to Ceres’); current from the Julian-Claudian era onwards (Schulze, 486f.; ThlL, Onom. 2,344f.).   Meier, Mischa (Bielefeld) [German version] [1] Brother-in-law of Valentinianus I, 4th cent. AD Brother of  Iustina, the wife of  Valentinianus I (Amm. Marc. 28,2,10). Tribunus stabuli (Amm. Marc. 30,5,19). In AD 375 he helped his nephew  Valentinianus II to the throne (Amm. Marc. 30,10,5). PLRE 1,197. Portmann, Werner (Berlin) [German version] [2] Dux Libyarum 405 AD In AD 4…

Nepotianus

(177 words)

Author(s): Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Son of Flavius N. (cos. AD 336) Son of the half-sister of Constantinus [1], Eutropia [2], and Flavius N. ( cos. AD 336). As a member of the Constaninian dynasty, he rose up in Rome against Magnentius. He defeated the army of the latter's praef. praet., Anicius (or Anicetus), in Italy and claimed to be the ruler for a while (June 350), until Magnentius's magister officiorum, Marcellinus [5], defeated him. Magnentius's retribution against N.'s supporters was bloody. PLRE 1,624, No. 5. Bleckmann, Bruno (Strasbourg) [German version] [2] Father of the Emperor Nepos,…

Eutropius

(731 words)

Author(s): Portmann, Werner (Berlin) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] [1] Author of a Lat. historical work Author of a Latin historical work, which according to its dedication was written at the instruction of Emperor Valens. The text indicates that the author had taken part in Julian's Persian campaign (10,16,1). In the intitulatio of a MS, he is referred to as a magister memoriae. It is still questionable whether he is identical with another Eutropius of the 2nd half of the 4th cent., whose name appears in other sources: possibly he was proconsul Asiae in 371/2, praef. praet. Illyrici in 380-1, and consul posterior in 387. The historical …

Magnillus

(50 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] Belonged to the circle associated with Symmachus, with whom he corresponded (Symmachus, Ep. 5,17-33). Governor of Liguria; in AD 391-393 vicarius in Africa, then indicted and acquitted; attested until 396 but no longer in an office, probably not a Christian. PLRE 1, 533. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)

Eudoxia

(218 words)

Author(s): Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Εύδοξία; Eudoxía) [German version] [1] Wife of Arcadius, see Aelia [4] Wife of Arcadius, Augusta from AD 400 onwards; see  Aelia [4]. Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover) [German version] [2] Licinia E. Wife of Valentinianus III and Augusta Born in AD 422; daughter of  Theodosius II and  Eudocia [1]. From 424 engaged to be married to  Valentinianus III , from 437 married. Two daughters:  Eudocia [2] and  Placidia. 439 Augusta. Promoted the building of churches in Rome. It is hard to judge the extent of her influence on the court but presu…

Anicius

(1,157 words)

Author(s): Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) | Eck, Werner (Cologne) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
Name of a family that came from Praeneste, which is documented there already in the Republican era. An Anician achieved the consulate in 160 BC (see [I 4]), but otherwise the tribe does not distinguish itself again in the Republic. In the imperial era, however, the gens blossomed; from the post-Diocletian era until the 4th cent. AD as an urban Roman family, and then, continued by the members of the female line, emerged as Christian aristocracy of great significance in the 5th cent [1]. Elvers, Karl-Ludwig (Bochum) I. Republican era [German version] [I 1] A., C. Senator (middle of the …
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