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Torah

(3,243 words)

Author(s): Achenbach, Reinhard | Lehnardt, Andreas | Liss, Hanna | Ochs, Peter
[German Version] I. Old Testament The noun tôrāh (הרָוֹתּ) is usually derived from the verb הרי/ yrh, “show,” hiphil “instruct.” In Israelite wisdom literature, it denotes ethical and religious instruction by parents (Prov 1:8; 4:1; 6:20; 31:26) or sages (Prov 13:14) as well as religious instruction by priests (Jer 18:18). As a term denoting the law (Law and legislation: II; LXX: νόμος/ nómos

Signs

(2,878 words)

Author(s): Esterbauer, Reinhold | Alles, Gregory D. | Kober, Michael | Ochs, Peter | Linde, Gesche | Et al.
[German Version] I. Terminology The term sign usually means something perceptible to the senses that signifies something else, which gives it its specific meaning. In theological and philosophical usage, it differs from the term symbol (Symbols), although the latter is sometimes used synonymously with sign in semiotics and mathematics as well as in logic. While Aristotle used the term σημεῖον/ sēmeíon in various contexts – including his theory of conclusions –,Augustine of Hippo associated the theory of signs more closely with the theory of language (Philology). After the 13th century, signum no longer meant simply something like a sound or a letter perceptible to the senses but also a term or a meaning (Significance) itself. This usage set the course that has dominated the theory of signs (semiotics) down to the present. It is questionable, however, whether linguistic signs may be considered an ideal type for signs in general. In addition, the communicative potential of signs has become a problem. Finally, sign, concept, and object label the vertices of the so-called semiotic triangle, in which their relationship to each other has been variously defined. There is also the question of how signs are interpreted. Following J. Locke, C.S. Peirce developed a theory of signs based on a triadic relationship between sign, object, and interpretant. A sign stands for something ¶ and induces the interpretant to relate to the object as well. Thus the interpretant in turn becomes a sign, which interprets the first sign; we end up in an endless process of interpretatio…