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Heraclius

(221 words)

Author(s): Schreiner, Peter
[German Version] ( Herakleios; 575 – Feb 11, 641), Byzantine emperor from 610 to 641. Born in Carthage, where his father was exarch, Heraclius overthrew his predecessor Phokas and established a dynasty that ruled until 711. He secured the status quo in the Balkans by negotiating treaties with the Avars and turned his attention to the conflict with the Sasanids, who had unsuccessfully besieged Constantinople in 626 before suffering a crucial defeat near Niniveh in 627, an event that precipitated the…

Anthimus of Constantinople

(174 words)

Author(s): Schreiner, Peter
[German Version] was patriarch of Constantinople; the dates of his birth and death (the latter probably between 536 and 552) are unknown. As an adherent of Monophysitism, he was transferred at the instigation of Empress Theodora from the Metropolitan see in Trapezus to Constantinople (after Jun 5, 535). The historian Theophanes Homologetes and the Liber pontificalis report his activity, which his own clergy opposed. Pope Agapet, who stayed in Constantinople in 535/36, obtained his deposition because …

Chronicles

(1,689 words)

Author(s): Schreiner, Peter | Kaufhold, Hubert | Müller, Ludolf | Sprandel, Rolf
[German Version] I. Byzantine Chronicles – II. Eastern Christian Chronicles – III. Russian Chronicles – IV. Western Chronicles I. Byzantine Chronicles Recent scholarship rightly sees world histories and contemporary historical works as a literary unity. In conformity with the terminology used here, in this article “chronicles” encompasses only world histories and annals. The Byzantine world produced far fewer kinds of chronicles than did the West, the Slavic world, and the Christian East. There are virtually no chronicles and annals o…

Bhagavadgītā

(274 words)

Author(s): Schreiner, Peter
[German Version] (lit. “Song of the Lord”) is one of the best-known, most discussed, and for many Hindus most authoritative texts of Hinduism; it comprises 18 chapters (700 verses) from book 6 of the Mahābhārata epic. Greatly simplified, the teachings contained in the Bhagavadgītā fall into three categories: 1. reflections on competing ideals of salvation and proper social order: ascetic renunciation, yogic contemplation, Sāṃkhya …

Religious Education, Science of

(4,242 words)

Author(s): Grethlein, Christian | Ziebertz, Hans-Georg | Schreiner, Peter
[German Version] I. Protestantism 1. Concept and subject area Religionspädagogik (RP), as the German technical term designating the science of ¶ religious education or pedagogics, is first attested in 1889 in the writings of Max Reischle (1858–1905), a disciple of A. Ritschl (Bockwoldt, 9f.). The first professorship for (Protestant) RP was instituted in 1924 in Göttingen (Roggenkamp-Kaufmann, 119f.). The term denotes “a ‘modern’ German science situated between theology and educational theory (Education, Theory of)” …

Yoga: Rāja Yoga

(7,204 words)

Author(s): Schreiner, Peter
Key words nowadays associated with Rāja Yoga are inwardness, mind control, purity, peace, bliss, meditation, easiness, being ancient, and authenticity – all of them supposedly representative of “classical” Yoga (Pātañjala Yoga) as canonized in the Yogasūtra attributed to Patañjali. Thus, “Rāja Yoga” falls in the domain of “Yoga” no less than of “Haṭha Yoga” and “modern yoga”. Besides the literal meaning of the term ("Royal Yoga"), tradition knows the (linguistically wrong) etymological derivation from rajas ([menstrual] blood). By its claim to superiority, “Royal Yoga” implie…
Date: 2020-05-18