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Victor of Capua (Saint)

(174 words)

Author(s): Schulz-Flügel, Eva
[German Version] appointed bishop of Capua in 541 (died 554), he is noteworthy for his edition of the New Testament, finished in 547, contained in Codex Bonifatianus 1 in the state library in Fulda (on its contents and origin see Fischer). For the Gospels, it is fairly safe to say that Victor himself revised an Old Latin version of Tatian’s Diatessaron to conform to the Vulgate text. He relied on other prototypes for the other parts of the NT, including the Letter to the Laodiceans. The manuscript was in the possession o…

Eusebius of Vercelli

(181 words)

Author(s): Schulz-Flügel, Eva
[German Version] (born c. 283 in Sardinia – died 371) was a lector in Rome and, from 344, bishop of Vercelli. Together with Lucifer of Cagliari, and following a request by Pope Liberius, he militated against Arianism (Arius/Arianism) and opposed the condemnation of Athanasius in the Synod of Milan (355). Constantius II banished him for this (Palestine, Cappadocia, Thebais…

Historia monachorum

(190 words)

Author(s): Schulz-Flügel, Eva
[German Version] Under this title two texts were handed down together: the Historia Lausiaca of Palladius of Helenopolis and the anonymous Historia monachorum (in Latin, usually Vita sanctorum patrum). The Historia monachorum arose in the heyday of Egyptian monasticism (c. 394). The probably fictitious travel journal describes the visit of monks from the Mount of Olives monastery in Jerusalem with Egyptian desert fathers. The Historia monachorum describes their various lifestyles, without a discernible preference for one particular ascetic direction. The Gree…

Gregory of Elvira (Saint)

(194 words)

Author(s): Schulz-Flügel, Eva
[German Version] (c. 320–393, bishop of Elvira, near Granada, Spain) was known as a strict anti-Arian (Arius) and had connections with Lucifer of Cagliari. Eusebius of Vercelli sent a letter to him. Nothing is known of his life (cf. Jer. Vir.ill. 105). Gregory's works are almost all transmitted under other names. Apart from De fide, they are allegorical interpretations of OT texts, except for Tractate 12 on Acts 1–2. Gregory utilized Tertullian, Novatian, Hilary of Poitiers, Hippolytus and Origen as cited by Victorinus of Pettau. The ancient version employed by …

Bible Translations

(16,696 words)

Author(s): Dogniez, Cécile | Schulz-Flügel, Eva | Juckel, Andreas | Veltri, Giuseppe | Griffith, Sydney H. | Et al.
[German Version] I. Translations into Ancient Languages – II. Christian Translations into European Languages since the Middle Ages– III. Translations into Non-European Languages in Modern Times I. Translations into Ancient Languages 1. Translations of the Old Testament into Greek a. The first written translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint (LXX), owes its name to the circumstance that the Letter of Aristeas refers to 72 elders who had come to Alexandria from Jerusalem in order to translate the Torah of the Jews into…

Rufinus, Tyrannius

(449 words)

Author(s): Schulz-Flügel, Eva
[German Version] (Rufinus of Aquileia; 345 Concordia – 411/412 Messina), Latin writer and translator of theology. Like Jerome he received his education in Rome (359–368); also like Jerome, he was enthusiastic about the asceticism then flourishing in the West. After his baptism in Aquilieia in 370, he traveled to the East (Alexandria, Egypt, and Palestine) to study Eastern theology and visit the monks of Egypt; in 380 he founded a monastery on the Mount of Olives in Jerusalem. During the first Orig…