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(469 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin)
(Φιλαδέλφεια/ Philadélpheia). [German version] [1] Lydian town founded by Seleucus I This item can be found on the following maps: Christianity | Education / Culture Lydian town founded by Seleucus I (cf. SEG 35, 1985, 1170 [2. 180139; 3. no. 20]) or by Attalus [5] II Philadelphos (who definitely gave the town its name). It lay at the northeast foot of Mt. Tmolus in the fertile valley of the river Cogamis (cf. the coins in HN 655, present-day Alaşehir Çayı), a southern tributary of the Hermus, in southern Catacecaumene [1] on the …


(168 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] [2] Town in the province of Numidia Town in the province of  Numidia, north-east of Lambaesis, modern El Mahder. The small settlement developed into a town and -- probably under the Severan emperors -- became a municipium (CIL VIII 1, 4327). A division of the legio III Augusta was garrisoned there: CIL VIII Suppl. 2, 18532. Inscription: CIL VIII 1, 4322-4353; Suppl. 2, 18527-18539. Huß, Werner (Bamberg) Bibliography AAAlg, sheet 27, no. 141 C. Lepelley, Les cités de l'Afrique romaine 2, 1981, 400f. [German version] [1] Town in Cilicia (Κάσαι; Kásai). Town in  Cilicia …


(334 words)

Author(s): Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Κλαυδιούπολις; Klaudioúpolis). [German version] [1] Settlement in the Salo region This item can be found on the following maps: Celts | Asia Minor Old settlement in the Salo region (Abant Gölü, Bolu basin and surrounding alpine pastures), today known as Bolu (Str. 12,4,7). It was a suburb of the free  Mariandyni, conquered by  Zipoetes in 281/0 BC, and Galatian from c. 275/4 to 179 (the residential fortress of the north-western Tolistobogian tetrarchy is located south of Bolu at the spa of Karacasu, already ancient at that time). Newly founded as the po…

Isauria, Isauri

(420 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Ἰσαυρία; Isauría, Ἴσαυροι; Ísauroi). Region in the south of Asia Minor between Pisidia, Lycaonia and Cilicia Tracheia, initially confined to the mountainous country in the Taurus around the two main settlements of Ísaura Palaiá (Ἴσαυρα παλαιά, modern Zengibar Kalesi) and Ísaura Néa (Ἴσαυρα νέα, modern Aydoğmuş, formerly Dorla) [1. 109ff.]. First mentioned in Diodorus (18,22): Ísaura (unclear which) was captured by Perdiccas in 322 BC. In the first Roman advance on Isauria. P. Servilius Vatia conquered Ísaura néa in 75 BC [2. 287ff., 1167ff.]. After the b…


(72 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Κολυβρασσός; Kolybrassós). Polis in Cilicia Trachea (Ptol. 5,5,8: Κολοβρασσός; Hierocles, Synekdemos 682,11: Ὀλυβρασóς), on the basis of epigraphical evidence today's Ayasofya, 19 km to the north-east of Coracesium [1. 30f.]. City settlement with bouleuterion (?), temples, churches and military structures [2. 9f. (with a sketch map)]. Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) Bibliography 1 K. Tomaschitz, Unpublizierte Inschr. Westkilikiens aus dem Nachlaß T.B. Mitfords, 1998 2 G. E. Bean, T. B. Mitford, Journeys in Rough Cilicia 1962 and 1963, 1965.


(97 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Ἁμαξία/ Hamaxía, Stadiasmus maris magni 208). City in western Cilicia, modern Sinekkale (6 km west of Coracesium) [1. 78f.]. The name might have been derived from ἅμαξα ( hámaxa, ‘wooden cart’) [2. 250f.]. H. was one of Antonius' gifts to Cleopatra (Str. 14,5,3). There is no secure evidence about its status of polis [1. 79]. Archaeology: well preserved, walled-in settlement with an arched gate in the south, three-naved church in the west, necropolis in the north-west. Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) Bibliography 1 G. E. Bean, T. B. Mitford, Journeys in Rough Cili…


(116 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Ἀδρασός; Adrasós). Settlement in upper Isauria ( Isauria; Hierocles, Synekdemos 710,6: Δαρασός; Darasós), modern Balabolu (derived from Palaiopolis), 27 km west of Mut ( Claudiopolis); localized from its position on the list by Hierocles, from the oronym Adras Dağı and from epigraphical evidence of Ἀδρασσεύς ( Adrasseús) in the surrounding area [2. 127]. Badly preserved Roman-Byzantine settlement with fortifications, two churches (diocese [3]), to the north-west extensive necropolis with various types of tombs, partly with…


(88 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Καράλ(λ)ια; Karál(l)ia). Town in  Cilicia Tracheia (Hierocles, Synekdemos 682,10; coins and inscriptions Καραλλια), modern Güney Kalesi, 20 km north-east of Coracesium. Verified as a pólis from the early imperial age by inscriptions and coins, later diocese [2. 244ff.]. Archaeological finds: walled town structure with a building dedicated to the ruler cult, temples and churches; a necropolis to the west [1. 59; 2. 237ff., 268 plan]. Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) Bibliography 1 G. E. Bean, T. B. Mitford, Journeys in Rough Cilicia 1964-1968, 1970 2) J. Nollé, …


(1,320 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Σελινοῦς/ Selinoûs). Name of several rivers and towns. [German version] [1] Tributary of the Alpheius [1] Southern tributary of the Alpheius [1] which enters west of Olympia, modern Krestena (Xen. An. 5,3,8; Paus. 5,6,6). Lienau, Cay (Münster) [German version] [2] River in Achaea River in Achaea, which originates on Mount Erymanthus near Leontium close to modern Vlasia, flows through the territory of Aegium and enters the Corinthian Gulf east of modern Valimitika. Today again known as S. (Str. 8,7,5 [1. 82 f.]; Paus. 7,24,5). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography 1 R. Baladié, Le P…


(384 words)

Author(s): Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum)
(Χάραδρος; Cháradros). A. Towns [German version] [1] Town in southern Epirus Town in southern Epirus, from 167 BC independent of the Epirote koinon. By means of a border agreement (SEG 35, 665; c. 160 BC) located to the north-west of  Ambracia, near the modern Palaia-Philippias; Pol. 4,63; 21,26. Strauch, Daniel (Berlin) Bibliography BCH 112, 1988, 359-373 V. Karatzeni, Τὸ ἱερὸν ὄρος, in: FS Dakaris, 1995, 289-299. [German version] [2] Port town and river in Cilicia Port and river (FGrH 1 Hecat. fr. 265) in Cilicia Tracheia, the modern Yakacık (previously Kaledıran),…


(52 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Κοροπισσός; Koropissós). City in  Isauria, possibly the statio Coriopio of the Tab. Peut. 10,3, probably modern Dağpazarı (formerly Kestel), 64 km north west of Seleucia on the Calycadnus. Imperial pólis with (later) city wall; diocese [1; 2]. Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) Bibliography 1 Hild/Hellenkemper 1, 313f. 2 M. Gough, s.v. Dağ Pazarı, PE, 256.


(75 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Νεφέλιον/ Nephélion). Town in Cilicia Tracheia near present-day Muzkent (formerly Kıcık), 38 km west-north-west of Anemurium on the steep coast of Mt Cragus. Mentioned only in Ptol. 5,7,2 (Νεφελίς/ Nephelís) and in the Stadiasmus maris magni 201, then once more as the seat of a bishopric at the Council of Calchedon in AD 451 [1; 2. 61f.]. Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) Bibliography 1 Hild/Hellenkemper, 366 2 K. Tomaschitz, Unpublizierte Inschriften Westkilikiens aus dem Nachlaß Terence B. Mitfords, 1998.


(46 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Κέστροι; Késtroi). Town in Cilicia Tracheia (Hierocles, Synekdemos 709,5; in Ptol. 5,7,5 corrupted Κάϋστρος), modern Macar Kalesi, 6 km south-east of Selinus [1. 155f. (with sketch plan); 2]. Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) Bibliography 1 G. E. Bean, T. B. Mitford, Journeys in Rough Cilicia 1964-1968, 1970 2 Hild/Hellenkemper 1, 301.


(231 words)

Author(s): Walde, Christine (Basle) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Λάμος/ Lámos). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon, king of the Laestrygones Son of Poseidon, old king of the Laestrygones and constructor of their stronghold at Telepylus (Hom. Od. 10,81ff.; Ov. Met. 14,233). On account of the identity of Telepylus and Formiae, Hor. Carm. 3,17 imagines his friend Aelius Lamia from Formiae to be L.'s offspring. Walde, Christine (Basle) [German version] [2] Eponym of the Thessalian town Lamia (also Lamius). Son of Hercules and Omphale, eponym of the Thessalian town Lamia (Diod. Sic. 4,31). He persecutes his half-brother Bargasu…


(1,581 words)

Author(s): Wittke, Anne-Maria (Tübingen) | Leisten, Thomas (Princeton) | Wagner, Jörg (Tübingen) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) | Weiß, Peter (Kiel) | Et al.
(Ἀντιόχεια; Antiócheia). [German version] [1] on the Orontes Founded as Antigonea on the Orontes 307 BC, but after the defeat of Antigonus I by Seleucus I Nicator at  Ipsus (301 BC), the town was moved to the site of present-day Antakya (Turkey) in 300 BC, and renamed as A. in honour of the latter's father Antiochus. Capital city of the Seleucid kingdom; it developed under the Seleucids through incorporating numerous settlements into a tetrapolis, each with their own boundary walls. Thanks to its positi…


(100 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Κορακήσιον; Korákésion). City in Cilicia Trachea (Plin. HN 5,93; Ptol. 5,5,3; Stadiasmus maris magni 207; Hierocles, Synekdemos 682,8), in Byzantine times Καλὸν ὄρος/ Kalón óros (also Candeloro i.a.), today's Alânya. Scyl. 101 referred to C. as pólis. The city resisted Antiochus III in 197 BC (Liv. 33,20,4f.) and served Diodotus Tryphon, the Seleucid rebel, as a basis against Antioch VII (Str. 14,5,2). According to Plut. Pompey 28,1, the Cilician pirates were defeated in a naval battle near C. (a different account:…


(143 words)

Author(s): Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
(Ἰοτάπη; Iotápē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Antiochus [18] IV of Commagene Daughter of Antiochus [18] IV of Commagene. She was married to Alexander, the son of Tigranes, a descendant of Hero and for a short while king of Armenia. With the support of the Roman emperor Vespasian (= AD 79) her husband became king of a small territory in Cilicia and had coins minted with images of himself and his wife (Jos. Ant. Iud. 18, 139-141). Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) Bibliography R. D. Sullivan, The Dynasty of Commagene, in: ANRW II 8, 1977, 794f. [German version] [2] Coastal town in Cilicia …


(107 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Σύεδρα; Sýedra). City in Cilicia Tracheia near the modern Seki, 17 km to the southeast of Coracesium. With its first literary mention (Luc. 8,259f.; Flor. Epit. 2,13,51) in the middle of the 1st cent. BC, after a phase of unclear power relations S. belonged to the province of Pamphylia no later than the time of Tiberius (AD 14-37) [1.49-51]. The settlement, on a rounded mountain top near the coast, is very well preserved (theatre, baths, cisterns, late antique city wall; [2] with map). Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) Bibliography 1 K. Tomaschitz, Unpublizierte Inschrift…


(89 words)

Author(s): Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna)
[German version] (Γερμανικόπολις; Germanikópolis, Hierocles, Synekdemos 710,2). City in Isauria, modern Ermenek, 67 km north of  Anemurium, probably founded by  Antiochus [18] IV of Commagene [1. 960f.]. G. played a leading role in the Isaurian wars of the 4th cent. AD (Amm. Marc. 27,9,7). G. is attested as a diocese from the middle of the 5th cent. Parts of a necropolis are preserved in the north of the modern city [2]. Tomaschitz, Kurt (Vienna) Bibliography 1 D. Stiernon, L. Stiernon, s.v. Germanicopolis, DHGE 20, 1984, 960-964 2 H. Hellenkemper, F. Hild, s.v. G., TIB 5, 1990.