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Thirty Years’ War

(2,043 words)

Author(s): Malettke, Klaus | Wallmann, Johannes
1. Historical Survey The term “Thirty Years’ War,” first used shortly after 1648, denotes the series of political and military engagements that had its focus in central Europe from 1618 to 1648 but that affected the whole of Europe in its complexity, course, and consequences. At the beginning of the 17th century France was still resisting Hapsburg encirclement, the Estates-General were battling for freedom against Spain (though there was a 12-year truce starting in 1609), and the Nordic kingdoms of…

Geier, Martin

(216 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Apr 24, 1614, Leipzig – Sep 12, 1680, Dresden), prominent exegete and preacher of Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). After studying at Leipzig (M.A. in 1633), Strassburg, and Wittenberg, he returned to Leipzig in 1636, where he was appointed professor of Hebrew in 1639. He became deacon in 1645, archdeacon in 1657, and pastor of the Thomaskirche in 1659, gaining his doctorate in theology in the same year. In 1661 he received appointments as professor of theology and superintendent. On…

Yvon, Pierre

(212 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (1646, Montauban, Languedoc – 1707, Wiuwert, Friesland), student and closest companion of J. de Labadie. His parents took him to church as a child when Labadie was preaching and while he was still young sent him to Geneva, where he lived in Labadie’s house and studied philosophy and theology under his direction. Along with Pierre Bulignon and Jean Menuret, he became Labadie’s inseparable companion. Alongside Labadie at his later residences in the Netherlands, Germany (Herford), an…

Protestantism

(7,917 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | Guder, Darrell | Holmes, Stephen R
[German Version] I. Church History 1. Germany and Europe. Protestantism is a synoptic term for all the Christian churches and groups with roots in the 16th-century Reformation. The term embraces the Lutheran and Reformed confessional churches (Lutheranism, Reformed churches) that emerged directly from the Reformation as well as the Anabaptist movements, the Anglican Church (with some qualifications), and the churches and Free churches associated indirectly with the Reformation that came into being later …

Schurman, Anna Maria van

(177 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Nov 5, 1607, Cologne – May 14, 1678, Wieuvert, Friesland), daughter of Dutch Reformed parents, she lived in Utrecht after 1623 and was allowed to study at the university there (e.g. with G. Voetius). Her outstanding erudition and linguistic facility, coupled with artistic talent, gained her renown as the “prodigy of her time.” She corresponded with many scholars, including R. Descartes and Christian Huyghens, and defended the right of women to engage in scientific studies ( Dissertatio de ingenii muliebris ad doctrinam et meliores litteras aptitudine, 1643). Late…

Concord, The Book of

(375 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] The Book of Concord is the most widely circulated collection of Lutheran articles of faith (I). It was published (in German) under the title Concordia. Christian, Reiterated, Unanimous Confession of the Undersigned Electors, Princes, and Estates who Embrace the Augsburg Confession and of the Theologians of the Same Doctrine and Faith on Jun 25, 1580, the 50th anniversary of the proclamation of the Augsburg Confession. It contains the three major creeds (Apostles' Creed, Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, …

Rechenberg, Adam

(162 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Sep 7, 1642, Leipsdorf, Saxony – Oct 22, 1721, Leipzig). After studying philosophy, history, and theology, Rechenberg began teaching in 1665 at the University of Leipzig; in 1677 he was appointed professor of philology and history. Through his fourth marriage (1686), to P.J. Spener’s eldest daughter Susann Catharina, he had close ties with Pietism. His appointment to succeed J.B. Carpzov (2) as professor of theology in 1699 effected a reversal in the attitude of the Leipzig theological faculty, which had been hostile to Pietism. His 1700 disputation De gratiae revo…

Pietism

(6,563 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | O’Malley, Steven | Winkler, Eberhard | Sträter, Udo | Feldtkeller, Andreas
[German Version] I. Church History 1. Germany and Europe a. Definition. Pietism was a religious revival movement in late 17th- and 18th-century Protestantism (I, 1), alongside Anglo-Saxon Puritanism (Puritans) the most significant post-Reformation religious movement. Emerging within both the Lutheran and the Reformed churches, Pietism broke with orthodox Protestantism regulated by the authorities, which it perceived as a moribund Christianity of habit, pressed for an individualized and spiritualized rel…

Osiander

(1,253 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard | Ehmer, Hermann | Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] 1. Andreas (Dec 14 or 19, 1496 or 1498, Gunzhausen – Oct 17, 1552, Königsberg [today Kaliningrad, Russia]), Reformer of Nuremberg (Nürnberg) and center of a violent controversy over his doctrine of justification. Osiander matriculated at Ingolstadt in 1515, where he learned Greek and Hebrew and was influenced by Humanism and especially by J. Reuchlin and the Kabbalah. In 1520 he was ordained to the priesthood; in the same year, he was employed to teach Hebrew by the Augustinian Herm…

Undereyck, Theodor

(266 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jun 15, 1635, Duisburg – Jan 1, 1693, Bremen). After studying from 1654 to 1658 in Utrecht (with G. Voetius), Duisburg (with Johannes Clauberg [1622–1665]), and Leiden (with ¶ J. Coccejus), Undereyck set out on an extensive study tour, visiting Switzerland, France, and England. His piety was shaped by Dutch precisianism (J. van Lodenstein). As a pastor in Mühlheim an der Ruhr from 1660 to 1668, Undereyck pressed for conversion and rebirth (Regeneration), called on people at home, and engaged in catechesis. F…

Myslenta, Cölestin

(211 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1588, Kutten near Angerburg, East Prussia – Apr 30, 1653, Königsberg). Born into the Polish nobility, Myslenta learned German only in adult life. He studied theology in Königsberg, Wittenberg and Giessen (1619 Dr.theol. in Gießen). Then he studied oriental languages under T. Erpenius in Leiden and J. Buxtorf senior in Basel. For six months he pursued rabbinic and talmudic studies in the ghetto in Frankfurt am Main. From 1619 he was professor of Hebrew language and profess…

Zimmermann, Johann Jakob

(219 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Nov 25, 1642, Vaihingen an der Enz – summer 1693, Rotterdam) began his studies at Tübingen in 1661, receiving his M.A. in 1664. In 1666 he was appointed lecturer at the Tübingen Stift, and in 1671 he became a deacon in Bietigheim, where he became an adherent of J. Böhme under the influence of L. Brunnquell, a neighboring pastor. He was valued at the Stuttgart court as a mathematician and astronomer; in his Cometo-Scopia (1681) he prophesied the rapidly approaching end of the world and the coming of the millennial kingdom. Suspended from office in 1686…

Martini, Jakob

(139 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 10, 1570, Langenstein near Halberstadt – May 30, 1649, Wittenberg). Studied in Helmstedt and Wittenberg; 1597, rector in Norden, East Friesland; 1602, professor of logic and metaphysics in Wittenberg; 1613, also of ethics; 1623, professor of theology. Jakob Martini followed C. Martini in the reestablishment of metaphysics, to which he devoted three works. In his Vernunft-Spiegel (1619; Mirror of reason), one of the first philosophical works in the German language, he combatted Ramist and anti- philosophical tendencies in Lutherani…

Habermann, Johann

(193 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Avenarius; Oct 8, 1516, Cheb [Ger. Eder], Czech Republic – Dec 5, 1590, Zeitz), who became a Lutheran between 1540 and 1542, served as pastor in several towns of Electoral Saxony (1564–1571 Falkenau, near Cheb). He was briefly a professor of theology (1571 Jena, 1576 Wittenberg); from 1576 to his death, he served as superintendent of the Stift in Zeitz. Known to his contemporaries as a Hebraist (Hebrew grammar 1571, Hebrew dictionary 1588), ¶ he was remembered by later generations as the author of a Lutheran prayer book equal in popularity to the Paradiesgärtlein of Joha…

Mayer, Johann Friedrich

(239 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 6, 1650, Leipzig – Mar 30, 1712, Stettin). After his studies in Leipzig and Strasbourg, he became Saturday preacher in Leipzig in 1672, superintendent in Leisnig in 1673, superintendent in Grimma in 1678, and fourth professor of theology in Wittenberg in 1684. From 1686, he was ¶ principal pastor at St. Jakobi in Hamburg, and at the same time professor in Kiel; in 1701, he was appointed professor in Greifswald and Swedish general superintendent of Western Pomerania. Even if posterity remembers him only as the “hammerer of heretics and pietists” ( malleus haereticoru…

Löscher, Valentin Ernst

(412 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 29, 1673, Sondershausen – Feb 12, 1749, Dresden). As the son of the Wittenberg professor of theology Caspar Löscher (1636–1718), Valentin Löscher also studied in Wittenberg. After a study tour (extending as far as Holland and Denmark), he received a master's degree and became an adjunct to the faculty of philosophy in 1692. He was appointed pastor and superintendent in Jüterbog (1699), superintendent in Delitzsch (1702), professor of theology in Wittenberg (1707), pastor of t…

Großgebauer, Theophil

(189 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Nov 24, 1627, Ilmenau – Jul 8, 1661, Rostock). After studying in Rostock (M.A. in 1650) Großgebauer was deacon of St. Jacobi in Rostock from 1653 onward. Imbued with the reform zeal of the Rostock orthodoxy (II, 2) and influenced by the edifying literature of England, he fought against unbelief ( Praeservativ wider die Pest der heutigen Atheisten, 1661), lamented the futility of many sermons, and devised a radical church reform agenda in his Wächterstimme aus dem verwüsteten Zion (1661). His proposals: precedence of the pastoral ministry over the preaching…

Petersen, Johann Wilhelm and Johanna Eleonora

(388 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Johann: Jul 1, 1649, Osnabrück – Jan 31, 1727, Gut Thymer bei Zerbst, Anhalt; Johanna, née Merlau, Apr 25, 1644, Frankfurt am Main – Mar 19, 1724, Gut ¶ Thymer), a couple widely read in Pietist circles (Pietism). Their views on eschatology (millenarianism, apocatastasis) define them as radical Pietists. As a student at Rostock and Gießen, Johann became a polyhistor of the Baroque and an expert on orthodox confessional polemic; in Frankfurt am Main, he was won to Pietism by P.J. Spener and J.J. Schütz. There …

Praetorius, Stephan

(218 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (May 3, 1536, Salzwedel – May 4, 1603, Salzwedel), author of Lutheran devotional books. After studying at Rostock (with D. Chyträus and Simon Pauli), he became a deacon in Salzwedel and later pastor of the Neustädische Kirche there. Despite calls from other places, he remained faithful to his home town until his death. In his view, Christians should eschew penance and asceticism, knowing only the treasures of God’s grace received in baptism ( Freudenchristentum, “joyful Christianity”). A collection of his writings was published by J. Arndt ( Von der güldenen Zeit, 1622…

Martini, Cornelius

(147 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (1568, Antwerp – Dec 17, 1621, Helmstedt) studied in Rostock under D. Chyträus and J. Caselius. In 1592 Martini became professor of logic in Helmstedt; he took part in the Regensburg Consultation on Religion (Disputations, Religious) in 1601. Presumed to be the first to teach Aristotelian metaphysics at a Protestant university, he is considered the founder of Protestant academic metaphysics ( Disputationes metaphysicae, 1604–1606), and had a decisive influence on the late-humanist shaping of the University of Helmstedt, which was not tied to…

Knorr von Rosenroth, Christian

(246 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jul 15, 1636, Alt-Raudten, Silesia – May 4, 1689, near Sulzbach, Upper Palatinate). After studies in Leipzig, Knorr von Rosenroth traveled to the Netherlands and to England. From 1668, he was councilor, and from 1687 chancellery director in Sulzbach. He was the main authority in spiritual matters at the supra-denominational court of Count Christian August von Pfalz-Sulzbach, which attracted scholars and artists. He became friends with F.M. van Helmont, J. Schütz, and the Quaker B…

Labadie, Jean de

(465 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 13, 1610, Bourg, near Bordeaux – Feb 12, 1674, Altona, near Hamburg). Labadie entered the Jesuit novitiate in 1625; in 1639, after theological studies (1636–1639) at Bordeaux and ordination to the priesthood, he obtained permission to leave the Jesuits and become a secular priest. He founded devotional communities in Paris and southern France, for a time showing some attraction to Jansenism. Soon he was struck by the idea of reforming the church after the model of the earlies…

Horb, Johann Heinrich

(199 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jun 11, 1645, Colmar – Jan 26, 1695, Schlems near Hamburg). A disciple of J.K. Dannhauer, Horb initially devoted himself to controversial theology, but became a reform-zealous Pietist under the influence of P.J. Spener, whose sister he married in 1671. Involved in conflicts with Protestant orthodoxy (II, 2) throughout his entire life, Horb was removed from office in Trarbach, where he had officiated as pastor and inspector from 1671 to 1678. From Windsheim in Franconia (superinte…

August, Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel

(185 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Apr 10, 1579, Dannenberg – Sep 17, 1666, Wolfenbüttel). After studying in Rostock, Tübingen, and Strasbourg, and journeying to Italy, France, and England, August led a withdrawn, scholar's life from 1604 to 1634 in Hitzacker, where he collected books and art treasures, and corresponded with, for example, J.V. Andreae. His court preacher Heinrich Varenius lent his …

Müller, Heinrich

(230 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 18, 1631, Lübeck – Sep 13, 1675, Rostock), Lutheran author of edifying works. After study in Greifswald and Rostock (under J. Lütkemann), and academic visits to universities in northern and central Germany, in 1653 Müller became archdeacon of St. Mary's Church in Rostock and assistant professor in the philosophical faculty. In 1659 he became professor of Greek language, in 1660 Dr.theol. (Helmstedt), and in 1662 professor of theology and pastor at St. Mary's; from 1671 he was…

Heunisch, Caspar

(170 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jul 17, 1620, Schweinfurt – Oct 18, 1690, Schweinfurt) studied in Jena and was at first a private tutor in Halle an der Saale. Following his ordination in 1645, he held pastorships in and around Schweinfurt (1647: subdeacon; 1654: deacon; 1660: archdeacon; 1666: superintendent as well as professor and inspector at the Gymnasium). Heunisch not only published sermons but also numerous scholarly writings, mostly on topics of apocalypticism and its chronology. Following the Schweidnitz pastor Matthäus Hoffmann (1615–1667) and his Chronotaxis Apocalyptica (Jena, 1…

Dannhauer, Johann Konrad

(388 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Mar 24, 1603, Köndringen, Breisgau – Nov 7, 1666, Strasbourg), the most important theologian of Strasbourg's Lutheran orthodoxy in the 17th century. After studying in Strasbourg, and for one year each in Marburg, Altdorf, and Jena (with J. Gerhard), he became inspector of the seminary in 1628, professor of rhetoric in 1629, profes¶ sor of theology and preacher at the cathedral in 1633, and in addition church president in Strasbourg in 1658. Dannhauer wrote fundamental works, s…

Starck, Johann Friedrich

(183 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 10, 1680, Hildesheim – Jul 17, 1756, Frankfurt am Main), Pietist devotional writer. During his studies at Gießen, he was won over to Pietism by J.H. May. After working as a private tutor in Frankfurt am Main, in 1709 he was appointed preacher in Geneva; in 1711 he was appointed pastor in Sachsenhausen and in 1723 at the Barfüßerkirche in Frankfurt. Rejecting separatist Pietism, Starck brought “true, inward, heartfelt devotion” into the state church through his edifying and devotional writings. His Tägliches Handbuch in guten und bösen Tagen (1727; ET: Daily Hand-Bo…

Neumann, Johann Georg

(193 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (May 1, 1661, Mörz, near Belzig – Sep 5, 1709, Wittenberg). Neumann grew up in Zittau, where he studied in the Gymnasium with the influential polyhistor Christian Weise, to whom he remained attached throughout his life. After studies at Wittenberg, he was appointed adjunct on the philosophical faculty in 1681 and professor of poetics and university librarian in 1690. In 1692 he was appointed professor of theology, synodal assessor, and provost of the castle church in Wittenberg. N…

Pritius, Johann Georg

(155 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Sep 22, 1662, Leipzig – Aug 24, 1732, Frankfurt am Main). After studying in Leipzig, Pritius became Saturday preacher at the Nikolaikirche in Leipzig (1690), minister and professor at the Gymnasium in Zerbst (1698), and superintendent in Schleiz (1701). In 1705 he traveled to Holland and England; in 1708 he became pastor at the Marienkirche, Greifswald, and professor of theology there; in 1711, senior of the Lutheran Ministry of Preachers in Frankfurt am Main. At an early age he …

Schmidt, Sebastian

(129 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (bapized Jan 6, 1617, Lampertheimin Elsaß [Alsace] – Jan 9, 1696, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). After studying theology in Straßburg, Wittenberg, and elsewhere, and Near Eastern languages in Basel with J. Buxtorf the Younger, he held ecclesiastical and educational appointments in Elsaß and southern Germany. In 1653 he was appointed professor of theology and preacher in Straßburg, where he also served as church president from 1666 until his death. A shy scholar, he was the most thorough…

Schmidt, Johann

(179 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jun 20, 1594, Bautzen – Aug 27, 1658, Straßburg [Strasbourg]). Forced by the plague to leave Halle for Speyer in 1611, in 1612 Schmidt moved permanently to Straßburg, where he studied philosophy (M.A. in 1615) and theology. In 1617 he traveled to France and England. In 1623 he received his Dr.theol. from Straßburg and was appointed professor of theology, then church president in 1629. He led the Lutheran Church of Elsaß in the Thirty Years War. His personal example and published …

Samson, Hermann

(121 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Mar 4, 1579, Riga – Dec 16, 1643, Riga). After studying at Wittenberg (with L. Hütter) and Rostock, he was appointed preacher at St. Petri in Riga as well as superintendent of schools; later he was appointed cathedral preacher. He published attacks on the Jesuit Counter-Reformation (Baltic countries: III, 1.b). After the Swedish conquest in 1622, King Gustav II Adolf appointed him superintendent over Livonia. He strove to restore the Lutheran church and school system, turned the …

Syncretistic Controversy

(429 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] is the name given to the drawn-out controversies in the second half of the 17th century between high Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a.β) and the union efforts of G. Calixtus and the University of Helmstedt, suspected of religious “syncretism.” Repelled by the horrors of the Thirty Years War, Calixtus shifted from polemics to irenics, calling for toleration and ecclesiastical peace between the confessions on the basis of a shared doctrinal foundation from the Early Church ( consensus antiquitatis). When the Jesuits rejected his plans for a reunion of the univer…

Pfeiffer, August

(170 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 27, 1640, Lauenburg – Nov 1, 1698, Lübeck). Initially a supporter of the millenarianism of C. Hoburg from his school days in Lauenberg, Pfeiffer studied in Wittenberg (1659, M.A.) under A. Sennert, J. Deutschmann, and A. Calov; the latter cured him of his chiliastic leanings. Pfeiffer was a learned orientalist who could understand 70 oriental languages. In 1668 he became assistant professor of oriental languages in Wittenberg (1677, Dr.theol.). He held church offices in Siles…

Schade, Johann Caspar

(163 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jan 13, 1666, Kühndorf, near Meiningen – Jul 25, 1698, Berlin). While studying in Leipzig, Schade became a follower of A.H. Francke; he joined the Leipzig Collegium Philobiblicum and soon became a spokesman for the Pietist movement in Leipzig. Forced to leave Leipzig, in 1691 he became a deacon at Sankt Nikolai in Berlin, alongside P.J. Spener. There he preached revivalist sermons and led collegia pietatis. His polemic against perfunctory absolution as part of traditional penitential practice (“Beichtstuhl, Satansstuhl, Feuerpfuhl,” linking th…

Spener, Philipp Jakob

(1,012 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] ( Jan 13, 1635, Rappoltsweiler, Elsass [Ribeauvillé, Alsace] – Feb 5, 1705, Berlin), father of Lutheran Pietism (I, 1). Son of a devout middle-class family with connections at court, he was brought up on edifying Puritan literature and J. Arndt’s Wahres Christentum. At the age of 16, he entered the University of Strasbourg (II); after foundation courses in philosophy (1653 master’s disserta-¶ tion against T. Hobbes), he studied the system of Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a) under J.K. Dannhauer, a theology he remained faithful to throughout his…

Rudrauff, Kilian

(139 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jul 17, 1627, Schotten, Upper Hesse – Sep 15, 1690, Gießen), studied in Marburg and then (after the university was relocated) in Gießen, where he taught in the boarding school after 1650. In 1659 he was appointed professor of ethics at Gießen; logic and metaphysics were added in 1661. In 1675 he became professor of theology. In 1677 he was also appointed superintendent of the Alsfeld diocese and in 1683 the Marburg diocese as well in the Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt. Rudrauff made outstanding contributions to catechetics. He criticized P.J. Spener’s Pia desideria an…

Lütkemann, Joachim

(207 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Dec 15, 1608, Demmin, Hither Pomerania – Oct 18, 1655, Wolfenbüttel). During his time as a student in Straßburg (Strasbourg), Lütkemann was influenced decisively by Johann Schmidt. After travels in Italy and France, he received his master's degree from the philosophical faculty at Rostock, where he was appointed professor of metaphysics and physics in 1643. Appointed deacon in the church of Sankt Jacobi in 1648, he gained a reputation as an outstanding preacher. Forced to leave M…

Hartmann, Johann Ludwig

(180 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 3, 1640, Rothenburg ob der Tauber – Aug 18, 1680, Rothenburg ob der Tauber). After studying at Wittenberg under A. Calovius, in 1660 Hartmann became pastor in Spielbach, in 1661 rector of the gymnasium in Rothenburg, and in 1666 pastor of Sankt Jakobi and superintendent. After receiving his doctorate from Tübingen in 1670, he published several volumes of sermons (including Das wahre Christenthum… in einer Hertz Postill, 1671), a Biblischer Catechismus (1678), and numerous works of popular edification ( Fluchspiegel, 1673; Spielteufel, 1678; Lästerteufel, 167…

Strauch, Aegidius

(194 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1632, Wittenberg – Feb 13, 1682, Danzig [Gdansk]). After studying in Leipzig and Wittenberg (with A. Calovius), he was appointed professor of philosophy in Wittenberg, receiving his Dr.theol. in 1664. In the Syncretistic Controversy, he vigorously opposed the Helmstedt theologians. In 1669 he was appointed rector of the Gymnasium in Danzig and pastor of Sankt Trinitatis. In 1673 he was removed from office on account of his anti-Catholic sermons; his removal produced an up…

Privacy

(745 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | Kumlehn, Martin
[German Version] I. Ethics The dichotomy of social and cultural reality in public and private spheres is characteristic of the modern life-world, and is the result of modern processes of change in social structure (Modernization). It is true that in the course of functional differentiation (Society: IV; V) essential ingredients of life, for instance work and vocation, are withdrawn from the private sector and transferred to the public one, but at the same time privacy centered on the family is assi…

Sandhagen, Caspar Hermann

(160 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 22, 1639, Borgholzhausen, near Bielefeld – Jul 14, 1697, Kiel). After studying at Rostock and Straßburg (Strasbourg), he was appointed assistant pastor in Bielefeld in 1665 and in 1667 headmaster of a school there; for a while he was closely associated with the Labadists (J. de Labadie) in nearby Herford. In 1672 he was appointed superintendent in Lüneburg, and in 1689 was made general superintendent for Schleswig-Holstein and senior court chaplain in Gottorf. As a painstakin…

Schelwig, Samuel

(131 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Mar 8, 1643, Leszno, Poland – Jan 15, 1715, Danzig [Gdansk]). After studying at Wittenberg with A. Calovius, in 1668 he was appointed deputy rector of the Gymnasium in Toruń; in 1673 he was appointed professor at the Danzig Gymnasium, and in 1681 deacon with the Katharinenkirche. In 1685 he was appointed rector of the Gymnasium and pastor of Sankt Trinitatis. His conflict with his Pietist colleague Konstantin Schütz turned into a literary debate with P.J. Spener that lasted for some years (e.g. Die Sektiererische Pietisterey, 1696/1697). Johannes Wallmann Bibliograph…

Prayer

(13,283 words)

Author(s): Alles, Gregory D. | Reventlow, Henning Graf | Gebauer, Roland | Förster, Niclas | Wallmann, Johannes | Et al.
[German Version] I. Religious Studies Prayer is one of the most frequent and important religious acts in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. It also appears in other religions – for example the indigenous religions of America. But it does not appear to be universal. Some Buddhist traditions, for example, are atheistic, and in them there is no prayer in the strict sense; these traditions often allow their adherents to pray to gods (e.g. Hindu gods), but they value the goals of such prayer less than enl…

Gerhard, Johann

(428 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 17, 1582, Quedlinburg – Aug 17, 1637, Jena) was the most important theologian of Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). Comforted spiritually in a youthful illness by his “spiritual father” Johann Arndt, the very talented Gerhard initially studied medicine at Wittenberg, then theology at Jena, Marburg (with B. [I.] Mentzer) and again in Jena. After earning his doctorate in theology (1606), he was retained for church offices (1606 superintendent in Heldburg, 1615 general superintendent…

Molanus, Gerard Walter

(200 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Oct 22, 1633, Hamelin – Sep 17, 1722, Hanover). After studying in Helmstedt (under G. Calixtus), Rinteln, and Strasbourg, in 1659 Molanus was appointed professor of mathematics, and in 1664 also of theology, in Rinteln. In 1671, he became a conventual in Loccum Abbey, in 1674 church director of the duchy of Calenberg (Hanover), and in 1677 abbot of Loccum. Though unimportant as a theologian, Molanus, as leader and organizer of a constantly increasing church territory ( inter alia union with Lüneburg 1705), can be considered the father of the Hanover region…

Concord, Formula of

(1,247 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] The Formula of Concord ( Formula Concordiae) of 1577 is the result of the trans-regional settlement effort conducted in protracted, tedious negotiations intended to provide a common doctrinal basis for the Lutheran state churches that had splintered through doctrinal disputes after Luther's death and had separated into various doctrinal traditions – notably that of the Philippists (adherents of Melanchthon) and the Gnesio-Lutherans. Through its inclusion in t…

Scriver, Christian

(282 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jan 2, 1629, Rendsburg – Apr 5, 1693, Quedlinburg), was a classic author of Lutheran devotional literature; like J. Arndt, he urged internalization of Christianity, but he was more focused than Arndt on Luther and his doctrine of justification; he ¶ was a brilliant stylist of immense erudition, drawing on secular sources for his writings. After studying in Rostock (with J. Lütkemann), in 1653 he was appointed archdeacon in Stendal; in 1667 he was appointed pastor of Sankt Jacobi in Magdeburg, where he served for 23 year…

Neumeister, Erdmann

(202 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (May 12, 1671, Uichteritz near Weißenfels – Aug 18, 1756, Hamburg), one of the last spokesmen for late Lutheran orthodoxy (II, 2.a). Neumeister began his theological studies in Leipzig with V. Alberti in 1689. After a brief period of teaching, he held various ecclesiastical offices, beginning in ¶ 1697. In 1704 he was appointed senior court chaplain, consistorial counselor, and superintendent in Sorau. In 1715 he became senior pastor of Sankt Jacobi in Hamburg. Neumeister flirted with Pietism as a student, but his ideas change…
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