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Protestantism

(7,917 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | Guder, Darrell | Holmes, Stephen R
[German Version] I. Church History 1. Germany and Europe. Protestantism is a synoptic term for all the Christian churches and groups with roots in the 16th-century Reformation. The term embraces the Lutheran and Reformed confessional churches (Lutheranism, Reformed churches) that emerged directly from the Reformation as well as the Anabaptist movements, the Anglican Church (with some qualifications), and the churches and Free churches associated indirectly with the Reformation that came into being later …

Schurman, Anna Maria van

(177 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Nov 5, 1607, Cologne – May 14, 1678, Wieuvert, Friesland), daughter of Dutch Reformed parents, she lived in Utrecht after 1623 and was allowed to study at the university there (e.g. with G. Voetius). Her outstanding erudition and linguistic facility, coupled with artistic talent, gained her renown as the “prodigy of her time.” She corresponded with many scholars, including R. Descartes and Christian Huyghens, and defended the right of women to engage in scientific studies ( Dissertatio de ingenii muliebris ad doctrinam et meliores litteras aptitudine, 1643). Late…

Concord, The Book of

(375 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] The Book of Concord is the most widely circulated collection of Lutheran articles of faith (I). It was published (in German) under the title Concordia. Christian, Reiterated, Unanimous Confession of the Undersigned Electors, Princes, and Estates who Embrace the Augsburg Confession and of the Theologians of the Same Doctrine and Faith on Jun 25, 1580, the 50th anniversary of the proclamation of the Augsburg Confession. It contains the three major creeds (Apostles' Creed, Niceno-Constantinopolitan Creed, …

Rechenberg, Adam

(162 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Sep 7, 1642, Leipsdorf, Saxony – Oct 22, 1721, Leipzig). After studying philosophy, history, and theology, Rechenberg began teaching in 1665 at the University of Leipzig; in 1677 he was appointed professor of philology and history. Through his fourth marriage (1686), to P.J. Spener’s eldest daughter Susann Catharina, he had close ties with Pietism. His appointment to succeed J.B. Carpzov (2) as professor of theology in 1699 effected a reversal in the attitude of the Leipzig theological faculty, which had been hostile to Pietism. His 1700 disputation De gratiae revo…

Pietism

(6,563 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes | O’Malley, Steven | Winkler, Eberhard | Sträter, Udo | Feldtkeller, Andreas
[German Version] I. Church History 1. Germany and Europe a. Definition. Pietism was a religious revival movement in late 17th- and 18th-century Protestantism (I, 1), alongside Anglo-Saxon Puritanism (Puritans) the most significant post-Reformation religious movement. Emerging within both the Lutheran and the Reformed churches, Pietism broke with orthodox Protestantism regulated by the authorities, which it perceived as a moribund Christianity of habit, pressed for an individualized and spiritualized rel…

Osiander

(1,253 words)

Author(s): Müller, Gerhard | Ehmer, Hermann | Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] 1. Andreas (Dec 14 or 19, 1496 or 1498, Gunzhausen – Oct 17, 1552, Königsberg [today Kaliningrad, Russia]), Reformer of Nuremberg (Nürnberg) and center of a violent controversy over his doctrine of justification. Osiander matriculated at Ingolstadt in 1515, where he learned Greek and Hebrew and was influenced by Humanism and especially by J. Reuchlin and the Kabbalah. In 1520 he was ordained to the priesthood; in the same year, he was employed to teach Hebrew by the Augustinian Herm…

Undereyck, Theodor

(266 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Jun 15, 1635, Duisburg – Jan 1, 1693, Bremen). After studying from 1654 to 1658 in Utrecht (with G. Voetius), Duisburg (with Johannes Clauberg [1622–1665]), and Leiden (with ¶ J. Coccejus), Undereyck set out on an extensive study tour, visiting Switzerland, France, and England. His piety was shaped by Dutch precisianism (J. van Lodenstein). As a pastor in Mühlheim an der Ruhr from 1660 to 1668, Undereyck pressed for conversion and rebirth (Regeneration), called on people at home, and engaged in catechesis. F…

Myslenta, Cölestin

(211 words)

Author(s): Wallmann, Johannes
[German Version] (Mar 27, 1588, Kutten near Angerburg, East Prussia – Apr 30, 1653, Königsberg). Born into the Polish nobility, Myslenta learned German only in adult life. He studied theology in Königsberg, Wittenberg and Giessen (1619 Dr.theol. in Gießen). Then he studied oriental languages under T. Erpenius in Leiden and J. Buxtorf senior in Basel. For six months he pursued rabbinic and talmudic studies in the ghetto in Frankfurt am Main. From 1619 he was professor of Hebrew language and profess…
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