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(1,407 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Zenger, Erich | Volkmann, Stefan
[German Version] I. Concept Revenge as a form of compensation provides a model for social behavior. Religions interpret it and extend the concept to relationships between human beings and gods as well as between the living and the dead. Religions vary in their assessment of revenge. They can consider it a legitimate form of justice (talion in tribal societies, the notion of revenge in the OT, as in Gen 4:23f.) or as an unethical mode of conduct to be overcome (Buddhism; Matt 6:12). Usually revenge is a peripheral aspect of religion a…

Exodus Tradition

(919 words)

Author(s): Zenger, Erich
[German Version] I. Theological Aspects – II. The Book of Exodus I. Theological Aspects “The fact that Yahweh, the God of Israel, is he ‘who led Israel out of Egypt,’ is one of most elementary and the most frequently repeated statements of faith in the OT. The fact that God regularly constitutes the grammatical or at least the logical subject of the statement is just as noteworthy as the fact that the collective ‘Israel’ always appears as the object. Israel traced its existence and its special status in the circle of nations to God's deed addressed in this statement of faith” (M. Noth, Überlief…

Ruth, Book of

(1,051 words)

Author(s): Zenger, Erich
[German Version] I. Content and Structure The book of Ruth begins with a situation typical of Israel’s historical memory. Like Abraham and Sarah (cf. Gen 12:10–20) and the whole tribe of Jacob (cf. Gen 46–47), in the midst of a famine a family leaves its home in Bethlehem to seek survival in the land of Moab. But Moab proves a deathtrap: first Elimelech dies, then his two sons, who after their father’s death had married the Moabite women Orpah and Ruth. The ¶ book goes on to tell how Elimelech’s widow Naomi finds her life fulfilled, especially through Ruth, her Moabite daughte…


(918 words)

Author(s): Zenger, Erich
[English Version] I. Inhalt und Aufbau Das Buch Ruth (R.) setzt mit einer für die Geschichtserinnerung Israels typischen Situation ein. Wie Abraham und Sara (vgl. Gen 12,10–20) und wie die ganze Jakob-Sippe (vgl. Gen 46–47) verläßt in einer Hungersnot eine Familie ihre Heimat Bethlehem, um im Land Moab zu überleben. Die Fremde erweist sich aber als Ort des Todes: Zunächst stirbt Elimelech, dann sterben die beiden Söhne, die nach dem Tod des Vaters die Moabiterinnen Orpa und Ruth geheiratet hatten. R.…


(1,223 words)

Author(s): Beinhauer-Köhler, Bärbel | Zenger, Erich | Volkmann, Stefan
[English Version] I. Zum Begriff R. ist als eine Form der Kompensation ein soziales Verhaltensmuster. In Rel. erfährt es Deutungen und wird auf Verhältnisse zw. Menschen und Göttern sowie Lebenden und Toten ausgeweitet. Rel. bewerten R. unterschiedlich: Sie kann eine legitime Form des Rechts sein (Talion in tribalen Gesellschaften, Vergeltungsgedanke im AT, u.a. Gen 4,23f.) oder als eine ethisch zu überwindende Verhaltensweise gelten (Buddhismus; Mt 6,12). Meist ist R. ein Randaspekt von Rel. und Theol. und so auch in der reli…