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## Hero

(1,389 words)

*Hḗrōn*). [German version] A. Life H. of Alexandria, mathematician and engineer. No details of his life are known. He lived after Archimedes [1], whom he quotes, and before Pappus, who quotes him. In the

*Dioptra*, ch. 35, H. describes a method for determining the time difference between Rome and Alexandria by observing the same eclipse of the moon at both locations. It is quite likely that this eclipse occurred in AD 62 and that H. probably observed it himself in Alexandria [10. 21-24]. Folkerts, Menso (Mu…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Leon

(1,337 words)

*Léōn*). Cf. also Leo. Byzantine emperor Leo [4-9]. Sicilian place name L. [13]. [German version] [1] Spartan king, 6th cent. BC Spartan king, Agiad ( Agiads), grandfather of Cleomenes [3] I (Hdt. 5,39); is said to have been successful in war together with his fellow king Agasicles in the early 6th cent. BC, but to have been defeated by Tegea (Hdt. 1,65). Sparta is said to have already achieved

*eunomía*(‘good order’) before his time [1. 45ff.]. Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) Bibliography

**1**M. Meier, Aristokraten und Damoden, 1998. [German version] [2] Tyrant of Phlius, 6th cent. BC Tyran…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Division of angles and circles

(923 words)

*n-*gon is inscribed in a circle, the circumference of the circle is divided into

*n*sections and the angle at the centre belonging to the side of the

*n-*gon has the value 360°/

*n*. The Pythagoreans ( Pythagoras [2]) were already interested in the regular polygons a…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Diophantus

(1,146 words)

*Diophantós*). [German version] [1] Writer of comedies Author of comedies, dates unknown; one fragment and the title of one play (Μετοικιζόμενος) have been preserved. Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) Bibliography

**1**PCG V, 42. [German version] [2] Commander under Mithridates VI Eupator From Sinope, son of Asclepiodotus, commander to Mithridates VI Eupator. In 110 BC he provided skilful military and diplomatic support to the inhabitants of the city of Chersonesus and thus enabled them to withstand the Scythians (Str. 7,3,1…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Apollonius

(7,446 words)

*Apollṓnnios*). [German version] [1] Dioiketes of Ptolemy II (259-245 BC) Of Caria, possibly Ptolemaic o

*ikonomos*there in 267 BC. Was

*dioiketes*of Ptolemy II from April /May 259 until the end of 245; in 252 escorted Berenice to her wedding to Antiochus II. At a critical transition period A. found himself responsible for the economy of the kingdom of the Ptolemies, adapting the fiscal system to the monetary economy of the Lagids, for which purpose he was entrusted with the management of finances and the co…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Menaechmus

(496 words)

*Ménaichmos*). [German version] [1] M. of Sicyon Greek historian and antiquary, 4th cent. BC Greek historian and antiquary of the 4th cent. BC. Author of a Pythian history (

*Pythikós*), which was superseded by a list of victors of the Pythian Games at Delphi composed by Aristotle (T 3) and therefore must have existed in the early 330s (cf. Syll.3 275). A history of Alexander, (

*Historía hē katá ton Makedóna Aléxandron*) is entirely lost (T 1), while only fragments remain of a local history of Sicyon (

*Sikyōniká*). Fragments of a treatise ‘On Artists (

*Perí technítōn*, F 3-6; 9) deal pr…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Nicomedes

(1,542 words)

*Nikomḗdēs*). [German version] [1] Spartan commander, 458 or 457 BC Member of the Spartan royal family of the Agiadae, son of Cleombrotus [2], brother of Pausanias, the victor of Plataeae. In 458 or 457 BC, N. led a Spartan army as the guardian of his underage nephew Pleistoanax to support the inhabitants of the Doris region against the Phocians and on the return march defeated the Athenians near Tanagra (Thuc. 1,107,2-108,1; Diod. Sic. 11,79,4-80,6; Plut. Cimon 17,4-9; Plut. Pericles 10,1-4). Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) [German version] [2] N. I of Bithynia King from 280 BC S…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Mesolabium

(99 words)

*mesolábion*). A mechanical device invented by Eratosthenes [2] to establish graphically the two geometric means

*x*and

*y*between two given lines

*a*and

*b*(as in the relationship

*a*:

*x*=

*x*:

*y*=

*y*:

*b*). The mesolabium enabled the mechanical solution of the problem of the duplication of the cube (‘Delian problem’): if

*b*= 2

*a*, then

*x*is the desired solution of the equation for the duplication of the cube (

*x3*=

*2a3*). Hippocrates [5] of Chios Folkerts, Menso (Munich) Bibliography mes T. L. Heath, A History of Greek Mathematics, Vol. 2, 1921, 258-260.

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Geminus

(723 words)

*Géminos*) [I]. [German version] [1] Astronomer and mathematician Astronomer and mathematician from the school of Posidonius. Almost nothing is known about his life. The height of his creativity was around 70 BC. It is generally accepted that he lived in Rhodes. The only fully extant treatise by G. is the ‘Introduction to Astronomy’ (Εἰσαγωγὴ εἰς τὰ φαινόμενα). It is in the tradition of Eudoxus and Aratus [4]. Similarly to the later writing by Cleomedes, it is an elementary textbook on astrono…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Dositheus

(947 words)

*Dōsítheos*). [German version] [1] Jewish apostate Son of Drimylos, Jewish apostate. He is supposed to have saved the life of Ptolemy IV Philopator before the battle at Raphia (217 BC)(3 Macc. 1,3). Around 240 BC he was one of the two leaders of the royal

*secretariat*and accompanied Ptolemy III in 225-24 on a trip in Egypt; he held the highest priestly office in Hellenistic Egypt around 222 as the priest of Alexander [4] the Great and the deified Ptolemies. PP 1/8,8; 3/9,5100. Schwemer, Anna Maria (Tübingen) Bibliography V. Tcherikover, A. Fuks, Corpus Papyrorum Judaicarum…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Sporus

(279 words)

*Spóros*) or Porus (Πόρος;

*Póros*). It is unclear whether the two individuals of this name living around AD 200 are in fact the same person (v. [5]). S. or Porus wrote a (lost) compilation, Κηρία (

*Keria*), with extracts on the quadrature of the circle and the duplication of the cube [4. 226]. He criticized Archimedes' [1] approximation of the number

*pi*(thus [1. 258,22]), provided his own solution to the problem of the duplication of the cube [1. 76-78; 4. 266-268] and rejected the Quadratrix of Hippias [5] of …

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Rhombus

(103 words)

*rhómbos*). [German version] [1] Geometric shape In the plane, a rectangle with four sides of equal length but with unequal angles (

*i.e.*, with two acute and two obtuse angles; Euc. 1, Def. 22; Censorinus, DN 83,14 Jahn). In three dimensions, a rhombus is the solid of revolution consisting of two cones with the same base (Archim. De sphaera et cylindro 1, def. 6). Folkerts, Menso (Munich) Bibliography

**1**T. L. Heath, The Thirteen Books of Euclid's Elements, vol. 1, 21925, 189

**2**A. Hug, s.v. Ῥόμβος (

*rhombus*), RE 1 A, 1069. [German version] [2] See Top see Top [German version] [3] See Rho…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Mathematics

(6,466 words)

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Dionysodorus

(550 words)

*Dionysódōros*). [German version] [1] Taxiarch to Theramenes c. 400 BC Taxiarch to Theramenes, betrayed to the Thirty by Agoratus (Lys. or. 13,30; 39-42). The latter was taken to court in 399/98 BC by D.'s brother and brother-in-law, Dionysius, the speaker of the 13th oration written by Lysias. Strothmann, Meret (Bochum) [German version] [2] Theban and Olympic winner, envoy and participant in the battle of Issus Theban and Olympic winner. Sent as an ambassador to Darius [3] and taken prisoner together with other Greek ambassadors by Parmenion in …

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Anthemius

(604 words)

*comes sacrarum larg.*(eastern region) in AD 400;

*magister officiorum*(eastern region) at the latest in AD 404,

*cos.*405; at the latest from AD 406

*patricius*. A. gained considerable political influence in his role as

*praefectus praetorio Orientis*from AD 405-414, initially under Arcadius, later under the underage Theodosius II. He was a Christian, but looked upon pagan culture with an open mind [1. 82 f.]. Through the building of walls, he took…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Neusis

(124 words)

*neûsis*, ‘inclination’, in the mathematical sense: ‘verging’) is a geometric operation that cannot be performed with a compass and ruler alone. It allows problems that lead to cubic and other higher equations (for example, cube duplication, angle trisection, squaring the circle) to be solved geometrically. A

*neûsis*construction is necessary when a straight line through a given point is supposed to intersect two given lines so that the distance between the points of intersection is equal to a certain distance. Nicomede…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Diodorus

(3,891 words)

*Diódōros, Diódoros*). Well-known representatives of the name: the philosopher D. [4] Kronos, the mathematician D. [8] of Alexandria, the universal historian D. [18] Siculus, the early Christian theologian D. [20] of Tarsus. [German version] [1] Athenian fleet commander in the Peloponnesian War Athenian, fleet commander with Mantitheus at the end of 408-407 BC at the Hellespont with a sufficient number of ships, so that Alcibiades [3] was able to sail to Samos and Thrasyllus and Theramenes to Athens (Diod. Sic. 13,68,2). (Traill, PAA 329550; Develin 171). Kinzl, …

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Menelaus

(2,514 words)

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Aristaeus

(716 words)

*Aristaîos*). [German version] [1] Greek rural deity Rural deity linked with sheep, the discovery of olive oil and honey, hunting, healing, prophecy and the end- ing of a period of drought on Ceos (cf. Apoll. Rhod. 2,500 ff.). In literature he is famous for the death of his bees, which occurred because he was responsible for the death of Euridices, and he successfully searched for ways to restore the bee populations (Verg. G. 4,315-558). A. is a complex figure who can be found in Central Greece, in Arcadia, on Ceos and in Cyrene. He was the husband of Auto…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Quadrature of the circle

(1,369 words)

*ho toû kýklou tetragōnismós*, Latin

*quadratura circuli*). [German version] I. The nature of the problem The quadrature of the circle is one of the three 'classic problems' (the other two being the trisection of an angle, cf. division of angles and circles, and the duplication of the cube) of ancient Greek mathematics. The problem is to find the side

*x*of a square such that its area is equal to the area of a circle with radius

*r*using a geometric procedure; that is, to determine the value of the variable

*x*in the equation

*x*2 = π

*r*2. Accordingly, the solution to the q…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly