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Latin American Councils

(2,192 words)

Author(s): Henkel, Willi | Dussel, Enrique
1. Colonial Period 1.1. Significance Soon after their arrival in Latin America in the 15th century, missionaries from Europe met together to seek common answers to their problems. Thus some ten juntas (i.e., high-level meetings) took place in Mexico that one might call forerunners of the Latin American councils. Technically, councils involve the participation of several bishops. The Latin American councils dealt with the introduction of Indians to the Christian faith, the administration of the sacraments in the context of mis…

Collegium Urbanum de Propaganda Fide

(201 words)

Author(s): Henkel, Willi
[German Version] The Collegium Urbanum was founded by Urban VIII with the papal bull “Immortalis Dei” on Aug 1, 1627, with the purpose of training priests to disseminate the Catholic faith around the world. The initial means were provided by the Spanish prelate Juan Bautista Vives (1545–1632), who gave the Ferratini palace on the Piazza di Spagna to the Congregation (Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith) as a gift to the seminary in 1626. He bequeathed h…

Latin American Bishops' Plenary Council

(306 words)

Author(s): Henkel, Willi
[German Version] (Rome, 1899). The plenary council of the Latin American bishops was the most significant event in the Catholic ¶ Church of Latin America in the 19th century. Pope Leo XIII convened the council with the papal missive Cum diuturnum of Dec 25, 1898; it met in the Latin American College in Rome from May 5 to Jul 9, 1899. The 13 archbishops rotated as chairmen of the assembly of 40 bishops from 18 countries; those who could not attend the council were able to express themselves in writing. In the course of 29 general congr…

Mexico, Provincial Councils of

(363 words)

Author(s): Henkel, Willi
[German Version] Precursors of the provincial councils of Mexico were the juntas (the most important in 1539) in which bishops and religious took part. In 1546 Paul III established the province of Mexico with the dioceses of Oaxaca (Antequera), Tlaxcala (Puebla de los Angeles (1519), Guatemala (1531); Chiapas, Michoacán, and Guadalajara (1548). The second archbishop of Mexico, Alonso de Montúfar, convened the first provincial council in 1555, which drafted initial regulations governing rights, duties, cate…

Provincial Council of Churches

(1,303 words)

Author(s): Pree, Helmuth | Henkel, Willi
[German Version] I. General A provincial council is a council for all the particular churches of an ecclesiastical province. They were ¶ already common practice in the 3rd century. Provincial councils, also called metropolitan synods, were first regulated for the whole church by canon 5 of the Council of Nicea in 325, which prescribed that they meet twice a year. The requirement was imperfectly observed and had to be renewed repeatedly. After the 6th century, conciliar discipline largely fell apart in the West. The m…

Philocalia

(356 words)

Author(s): Henkel, Willi
[German Version] The Greek word ϕιλοκαλία denotes, first, love of the beautiful (according to Augustine, also of the Good) as “affective striving towards God and everything that leads to union with him as source of all beauty” (Citterio, 243); and secondly, certain collections of texts. The Philocalia from works of Origen ( De Principiis and Contra Celsum) were collected by Basil the Great and Gregory of Nazianzus. The most highly regarded Philocalia was published in Venice in 1782 by Nicodemus the Hagiorite and Bishop Macarius of Corinth (1731–1805) under the title Philocalia of the …

Paisius Velichkovsky, Saint

(181 words)

Author(s): Henkel, Willi
[German Version] (Feb 21, 1722, Poltava, Ukraine – Nov 15, 1794, Neamţ, Romania), monk and saint of the Russian and Romanian Orthodox Church (feast day: Nov 15). Paisius Velichkovsky was the son of a Russian priest; he attended the Kiev Academy (but did not graduate). From 1746 onward he lived on Mount Athos, and from 1763 in Moldavia. He founded a monastery in Neamţ. Paisius also translated Greek patristic texts into Church Slavonic, notably the ¶ Philocalia ( Dobrotoljubie, 2 vols., 1793), and exerted a strong influence on the religious revivalism of the 19th century, a…

Italian Missions

(417 words)

Author(s): Henkel, Willi
[German Version] During the 19th century, a spirit of renewal led to the creation of four mission institutes in Italy: 1. In 1850, Angelo Ramazotti founded the Milan Seminary of Foreign Missions in Saronno, which was relocated to Milan in 1851. Its members (priests and laypersons) committed themselves by pledge (later by oath) to a lifelong dedication to missionary work. They were active in Oceania (1852), Central Bengal (1855), Hong Kong (1858), and China (1870). In 1926, Pope Pius XI merged the Pontificio Seminar…

Seumois, André

(198 words)

Author(s): Henkel, Willi
[German Version] (Apr 29, 1917, Flémalle-Grande, Liège – Sep 11, 2000, Rome), Catholic missiologist and advocate of scholarly missiology in the context of a normative, biblically based program ( missiologie spirituelle, 1952). He joined the congregation of the Oblates of Mary Immaculate in 1935. After studying at the Athenaeum of the Propaganda Fide (Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith) in Rome, he taught as a missiologist at the University of Ottawa from 1938 to 1951. In 1952 he was recalled to teach at the Missio…