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Gorgophonos

(90 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[English version] [1] Beiname der Athena (“Gorgotöter/in”). Beiname der Athena in Orph. h. 32,8 (siehe jedoch Gorgophone [1]). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [English version] [2] Beiname des Perseus Beiname des Perseus (Eur. fr. 985 Nauck; Nonn. Dion. 18,305; 30,269; 31,12; 47,506; 47,536). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [English version] [3] Sohn des Elektryon, Bruder der Alkmene Sohn des Elektryon und der Alkaiostochter Anaxo, somit Enkel des Perseus. Als seine Schwester wird Alkmene genannt, als seine Brüder Stratobates, Phylonomos, Kelainos, Amphim…

Hippomenes

(228 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππομένης). [English version] [1] Sieger des Wettlaufs mit Atalante Boioter aus Onchestos, Sohn des Megareus (Hyg. fab. 185) oder des Ares (schol. Theokr. 3,40) und einer Merope (Hyg. fab. 185). Vom Wettlauf des H. mit Atalante wußte schon Hesiod (fr. 74 M.-W.). Am ausführlichsten ist die Darstellung bei Ov. met. 10,560-707 [1]: Auf seine Bitte hin überläßt ihm Venus drei Äpfel, die Atalante während des Wettlaufs jeweils aufhebt und deshalb unterliegt. H. versäumt das Dankopfer; auf Veranlassung der Ven…

Phallos

(598 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[English version] (φαλλός, lat. phallus; von einer idg. Wurzel * bhel-, “aufblasen”, “aufschwellen”). Das männliche Glied spielte als Träger der segenspendenden Zeugungskraft eine große Rolle in Rel. und Kult. Bes. eng ist seine Verknüpfung mit Dionysos: Ph.-Prozessionen finden sich an den ländlichen Dionysien (Aristoph. Ach. 241-276), wo der Ph. als Phales, dem das Kultlied gesungen wird, eigene Kontur erfährt (Aristoph. Ach. 263; 276), und an den großen Dionysien, wo zu der Prozession auch die Mitglieder des attischen Seebundes eigene phalloí entsandten [9. 592]. Wahrhaf…

Hellusii

(107 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] In Tac. Germ. 46,4, the name of a fantastic people with a human face and a body the shape of an animal. An etymology that goes back to an animal name is therefore assumed; a Germanic equivalent with Greek ἐλλός, Armenian eln, Lithuanian élnis ‘deer (fawn)’ [1. 534-537] has been suggested. Whether this fantastic people bears witness to Scandinavian peoples or rather to seals with a face resembling that of a human remains to be seen [1. 537]. They should certainly not be linked with the Helisii, part of a tribe of Lugians (Tac. Germ. 43,2). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliogra…

Telete

(465 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (τελετή /teletḗ, pl. teletaí, < *tḷ1-et2 from teléō/télos < *tel-1 , 'to bring' [10. 232] in contrast to the common two-fold derivation of *kwel- and *tel-2 ; as a Greek foreign word in Lat. teleta, Apul. Met. 11,22 et alibi on the cult of Isis). In the religious realm, the term could refer to various types of events (cf. Hsch. s. v. τ.: festivals, sacrifices, mysteries), originally to religious acts in general (e.g. Batr. 303 [11. 97]; Aristoph. Pax 413). It is therefore used in connection with various Greek fest…

Gorgophone

(187 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γοργοφόνη; Gorgophónē). [German version] [1] Epithet of Athena Epithet of Athena in the sense of ‘killer of Gorgo’ (Eur. Ion 1478; Orph. H. 32,8 Quandt after the passage in Euripides, although γοργοφόνος is transmitted in the vocative); the name can also be interpreted as ‘glowing terribly’ (cf.  Persephone). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliography 1 F. Bräuninger, s.v. Persephone, RE 19, 946-947. [German version] [2] One of the Danaids One of the Danaids ( Danaus, Danaids) natural sister of Hypermestra. Her husband is Proteus (Apollod. 2,16 Wagner), whose …

Moriae

(193 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (μορίαι/ moríai). In Athens a term for the olive-trees that were sacred to Athena, the maintenance of which, by assigning special custodians, known as gnṓmones, was watched over by the Areopagus ( áreios págos ) (Lys. or. 7,25). The moriai and even their stumps, which were protected by fences ( sēkós), were sacred, and this may be connected with the high regenerative power of olive trees (cf. Hdt. 8,55). Even the Spartans are said, according to schol. Soph. OC 701, to have spared them when devastating Attica. Offences against the moriai were punished with death (Aristo…

Hippe

(224 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἵππη; Híppē). [German version] [1] Mistress of Theseus Mistress of  Theseus (Hes. fr. 147 M-W = Ath. 13,557a). Her identification with Hippolyte (= Antiope, according to Cleidemus FGrH 323 F 18 = Plut. Theseus 27,13a) is reasonable considering the identification of Antiope with Hippo (Callim. H. 3,239; 266); furthermore, the name H. appears in the form of Hippo (Clem. Al. Strom. 1,73,4-5 and [1st Prologue l. 21]). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Daughter of the centaur Chiron and of Chariclo Daughter of the centaur  Chiron (Hyg. Poet. Astr. 2,18) and of Ch…

Segetia

(158 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Roman goddess (from * sēi, 'sow (seed)': [1. 285]; from seges: Plin. HN 18,8; cf. Isid. Orig. 17,2,7). Linked to a triad in Aug. Civ. 4,8 (= Varro Antiquitates rerum divinarum fr. 166 Cardauns) in the context of a  polemical account of the multiplicity of Roman gods: Seia is stated to be responsible for the grain in the ground, S. for the same on the culm and Tutilina for it when harvested. The images ( simulacra) of these deities could be seen in circo (Plin. HN. 18,8), possibly referring to reliefs on columns (Tert. De spectaculis 8,3; cf. Macrob. Sat. 1,16,8…

Ganyctor

(222 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Γανύκτωρ; Ganýktōr). Person in the  competition between Homer and Hesiod; information on his role and genealogical position varies: [German version] [1] Son of king Amphidamas [5] of Chalcis The son of king Amphidamas [5] of Chalcis (Certamen l. 63), as such perhaps the judge in the poetic competition (Vita Hesiodi l. 10). Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) [German version] [2] Son of the Locrian Phegeus from Oenoë Son of the Locrian Phegeus of Oenoë, the brother of Amphiphanes. Together they killed Hesiod for seducing their sister Ctimene, who then gave birth to S…

Thallophoria

(245 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (θαλλοφορία/ thallophoría, 'carrying of branches'). At the Panathenaea the act, performed by selected old men (Xen. Symp. 4,17,4), of presenting branches; the term thallophoria is not recorded, but thallophóros ('branch carrier': Hsch. s. v.) and the verb thallophoreîn (Eust. in Hom. Od. 1157,24) are, and these both became proverbial (Aristoph. Vesp. 542 f. with schol.; Suet. perì blasphēmiôn 8,10) in with the meaning 'useful only for carrying branches'. To this extent the modern terminology [1. 278; 2. 1215] is motivated by analogous…

Laius

(699 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Λάιος; Láios). [German version] [1] Mythical Theban king Mythical Theban king, son of Labdacus, grandson of Polydorus [1] and great-grandson of Cadmus [1] (Hdt. 5,59); his mother's name is not mentioned. He lives four generations before the Trojan War (his great-great-grandson Tisamenus is a minor when the war begins: Paus. 9,5,13). He loses his father when he is one year old (Apollod. 3,40); Lycus, the brother of L.'s great-grandfather on his mother's side, Nycteus (Paus. 9,5,5), becomes his guardi…

Mulciber

(165 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] M. was an epithet for Vulcanus documented on an inscription (CIL XI 5741 from Sentinum) and in literature (amongst others Plaut. Epid. 34, Ov. Met. 2,5 and Sil. 4,668). Besides erroneous constructs (Serv. Aen. 8,724: quod mulcatus pedes; Donat. in Ter. Hec. 1,1,8: quod mutilatus; Don. in Ter. Ad. 1,2,10: a mulctando), classical derivations of the name originate mostly from the destructive power of fire, which is meant by the verb mulcere (as in Serv. Aen. 8,724; Macrob. Sat. 6,5,2; Donat. in Ter. Hec. 1,1,8). The derivation a molliendo scilicet ferro in Fest. 129 L. points …

Valetudo

(288 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] ('Health'). In contrast to the generally positive connotations of salus , v. as a term for health is neutral and is hence given qualifying epithets ( bona: Lucr. 3,102; incommoda: Liv. 5,31,9; cf. esp. Manil. 3,140f.) or can, according to context, be biased in diametrically opposed ways (positive: Liv. 4,25,3; negative: 8,12,2). The wish for good health was common (Sen. Ep. 10,4; Petron. Sat. 61), but as early as the Roman Republic appears to have transcended a purely private nature (as in Livius [I 7] Drusus…

Teleboae

(203 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Τηλεβόαι; Tēlebóai). Mythical people in the west of Acarnania, on Leucas (Str. 7,321 f.) and the adjoining islands (Plin. HN 4,53). Their eponymous progenitor Teleboas is considered a son of Poseidon and the father of Pterelaus (Anaximand. FGrH 9 F 1) or as the latter's son of Pterelaus and the brother of Taph(i)us (Herodorus FGrH 31 F 15). His descriptive name means 'far-calling' (Eust. Od. 1396,3-4) or derives in a strange etymology from T.'s campaign against Electryon to steal his 'oxen' ( bóas) 'far' ( tḗle) from his homeland (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,747), to …

Quies

(89 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Personification of quiet, the religious worship of which is documented exclusively by the mention of a sanctuary of  Q. ( fanum Quietis) on the via Labicana  (Liv. 4,41,8). The inscription Quies Augustorum can be found on coins of Diocletianus and Maximianus after their abdication in AD 305; however, it must be seen in connection with the relief they felt at their withdrawal from official duties, rather than as in fact reflecting religious practice. Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) Bibliography R. Vollkommer, s. v. Q., LIMC 7.1, 612; 7.2, 489.

Pyanopsia

(193 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] (Πυανόψια; Pyanópsia). Attic festival in honour of Apollo, held on the 7th of the month Pyanopsiṓn (end of October). A thick pulse soup (Greek pýanos, ‘bean’ and hépsein, ‘to cook’, from which the festival's name is also derived) was cooked on the occasion, which was etiologically linked with Theseus' homecoming (Plut. Theseus 10; [2. 150-153]). A procession of boys hung the E iresiṓnē, olive branches bound with wool decoration and laden with first-fruit offerings, on the doors of houses and on the temple of Apollo (Schol. Aristoph. Equ. 72…

Hersilia

(241 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
[German version] Daughter of the noble Sabine Hersilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,1). During the rape of the Sabine women, she is the only married woman who is abducted (Cass. Dio 56,5,5 is a reflection of this: H. teaches the Roman women tà gamiká, ‘what forms part of marriage’), she stays with her daughter, who was also abducted (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 2,45; Macrob. Sat. 1,6,16), and marries, according to some sources, a certain Hostilius in Rome and so becomes the grandmother of King Tullus  Hostilius (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 3,1; Plut. Romu…

Pandion

(379 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Πανδίων/ Pandíōn). [German version] [1] Attic King Mythical Attic king and eponymous hero of the Pandionis [2] phyle (with 11 demes [2. 370]). P. occupies the sixth place on the list of kings in Hellanicus [1 (FGrH 4, commentary, vol. 1, p. 449). this list was later expanded by duplications of P. and Cecrops, first detectable in the Marmor Parium (FGrH 239 A 1-17). Here, P. I occupies the fifth place, and P. II the eighth. Originally, the list probably only contained the kings Cecrops, P., Erechtheus and Aegeus, as only they were phyle heros while they were kings. P. is therefore one legendary …

Hippomenes

(246 words)

Author(s): Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen)
(Ἱππομένης; Hippoménēs). [German version] [1] Victor in foot race against Atalante Boeotian from Onchestus, son of  Megareus (Hyg. Fab. 185) or Ares (schol. Theoc. 3,40) and Merope (Hyg. Fab. 185). The foot race between H. and  Atalante was already known to Hesiod (fr. 74 M.-W.). The most comprehensive account can be found in Ov. Met. 10,560-707 [1]: Upon his request, Venus gives him three apples which Atalante picks up during the race, causing her to lose. H. fails to perform the thanks-offering; Venus en…
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