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Transmigration of Souls

(1,282 words)

Author(s): Betz, Hans Dieter | Dehn, Ulrich | Dan, Joseph | Schmidtke, Sabine
[German Version] I. Religious Studies 1. Terminology. Theories of transmigration, which go back to the pre-Socratics of the 6th and 5th centuries bce (Empedocles, Pythagoras, Orphism), presuppose a dualism of body and soul. They hold that a human birth is not a totally new creation but the reincarnation of a pre-existent soul. Repeated incarnations extend not only to human beings of all classes and stations but also to flora and fauna; their purpose is the eschatological purification of the soul from ritual and ethic…

Ibn Mattawayh

(1,353 words)

Author(s): Schmidtke, Sabine
Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. Aḥmad Ibn Mattawayh (or Mattūya; fl. fifth/eleventh century) was a Muʿtazilī theologian and jurisprudent, who belonged to the Bahshamī branch of the movement, founded by Abū Hāshim al-Jubbāʿī (d. 321/933). 1. Life In his biographical work on Muʿtazilī scholars, al-Ḥākim al-Jishumī (d. 494/1101) mentions Ibn Mattawayh near the end of his list of the twelfth generation, comprising the disciples and companions of the qāḍī l-quḍāt ʿAbd al-Jabbār al-Hamadhānī (d. 415/1025) (Sayyid 389). This suggests that Ibn Mattawayh joined ʿAbd al-Jabbār a…
Date: 2021-07-19