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Carpus

(196 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Folkerts, Menso (Munich)
(Κάρπος; Kárpos). [German version] [1] Son of Zephyrus and a certain Hore Handsome youth, son of Zephyrus and of a certain Hore ( Horae). He organizes a swimming race with  Calamus, his best friend, but drowns in the event. In mourning, his friend kills himself and is turned into reeds. C. is turned into a crop of the field (Nonnus, Dion. 11,385-481). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] C. of Antioch Mathematician A mathematician, who lived presumably in the 1st or 2nd cent. AD. Information on him is given in four fragments by Pappus (8,3), Proclus (in Euc…

Mentor

(446 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Μέντωρ; Méntōr). [German version] [1] Father of Imbrios of Pedaion Father of Imbrius of Pedaeum (Hom. Il. 13,171). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Alkimos, companion of Odysseus M. of Ithaca, son of Alcimus (Hom. Od. 22,235), companion of Odysseus, who on his departure to Troy hands over to M. the supervision of his household (ibid. 2,225ff.). In the People's Assembly M. firmly opposes the behaviour of the suitors (ibid. 2,224ff.). The goddess Athena often takes on his form in order to help Telemachus wi…

Ogygus/Ogyges

(158 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Ὤγυγος; Ṓgygos/Ὠγύγης; Ōgýgēs). The name O. is probably pre-Greek, and may derive from the Lydian-Carian migrations; at that time, O. was worshipped as a god. The Boeotian goddesses of oaths, the Praxidikai, were said to be his daughters (Paus. 9,33,5; Suda s.v. Πραξιδίκη; Steph. Byz. s.v. Τρεμίλη). Ancient king of Boeotia (the adjective ὠγύγιος/ ōgýgios is used for 'Boeotian' and 'ancient': Suda s.v. Ὠγύγια κακά; Ὠγύγιον); autochthon and king of the Ectenians (Paus. 9,5,1); son of Boeotus (schol. Eur. Phoen. 1113) and husband of Th…

Caphene

(58 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Καφένη; Kaphénē). Carian maiden, who, out of love for the Melian Nymphius betrays her people by divulging their plan to invite the Melians to a feast so as to kill them underhandedly. Instead, the Carians were slain. In return, C. becomes the wife of Nymphius (Plut. Mor. 246d-247a, 207f.; Polyaen. 8,46). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Pheidippus

(287 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Walter, Uwe (Cologne) | Nutton, Vivian (London)
(Φείδιππος; Pheídippos). [German version] [1] Son of Thessalus, naval commander at Troy Son of Thessalus, brother of Antiphus, consequently grandson of  Heracles [1] and Chalciope [3] (Hyg. Fab. 97,14). One of Helen [1]'s suitors (Hyg. Fab. 81). He and his brother command 30 ships at Troy (Hom. Il. 2,676-680). On the voyage home he is blown off course to Thesprotia, where he also dies. In Odysseus's tall stories  (Hom. Od. 14,316; 19,287) the king Pheidon of the Thesproti appears twice. The latter's name is…

Megapenthes

(223 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Μεγαπένθης/ Megapénthēs, ‘very sorrowful’). [German version] [1] Son of King Proetus of Argos Son of King Proetus of Argos (Apollod. 2,29), father of Argeus and grandfather of Anaxagoras (Paus. 2,18,4) or father of Anaxagoras and Iphianira (Diod. Sic. 4,68,4; cf. also Iphianassa [1]). M. exchanged kingdoms with Perseus, so that he ruled over Argos and Perseus over Tiryns. According to Hyginus (Hyg. Fab. 244), he was said to have killed Perseus for the murder of his father. Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Menelaus [1] and a slave woman Son of Menelaus [1] and a sla…

Lelante

(51 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Ληλάντη; Lēlántē). Wife of the mythological Molossian king Munichus and mother of Alcander among others. When the god-fearing family is attacked by robbers and their house is set alight, they are transformed into birds by Zeus so they can be saved (Antoninus Liberalis 14). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Nicaea

(1,521 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Dreyer, Boris (Göttingen) | Daverio Rocchi, Giovanna (Milan) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt) | Et al.
(Νίκαια; Níkaia). [German version] [1] Naiad Naiad, daughter of the Phrygian river god Sangarius and the goddess Cybele. As a huntress, N. spurns love and remains a virgin. In Memnon of Heracleia, she does not yield to Dionysus and so he resorts to a ruse and turns into wine the spring from which N. is accustomed to drinking. She becomes drunk and falls asleep. Dionysus overpowers her in her sleep and fathers with her 'satyrs and others' (Memnon FGrH 434 F 41, 8f.). In Nonnus, Dion. 15,169-16,405, the…

Laogoras

(63 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λαογόρας; Laogóras). Dryopian king who by holding a banquet in the manner of his people in the grove of Apollo offends against the god. L. supports the Lapith prince Coronus in his attack on the Dorian king Aegimius [1]. The latter calls Hercules for help, who then kills L. and Coronus (Apollod. 2,154f.; Diod. Sic. 4,37,3). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Maeander

(201 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Blümel, Wolfgang (Cologne)
(Μαίανδρος; Maíandros). [German version] [1] God of the homonymous river God of the homonymous river M. [2] that flows into the sea in the Bay of Miletus; son of Oceanus and Tethys (Hes. Theog. 339); furthermore, father of Samia and Cyane, who bears Miletus the twins Byblis and Caunus [1] (Ov. Met. 9,450ff.). The sons of M. are, among others, Calamus [1] (Nonnus, Dion. 11,464ff.) and Marsyas [1]. Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] River in south-western Asia Minor Longest river in south-western Asia Minor (modern Menderes), has its origin near Celaenae and after …

Meles

(144 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Μέλης/ Mélēs, also Μέλητος/ Melētos). Athenian who, not returning the love of the metic Timagoras, drives him to suicide; after the latter's death, M. follows suit out of remorse: aition for the altar of Anterus, which the metoikoi erected in the city and venerated in memory of Anterus' having avenged Timagoras (Paus. 1,30,1). There is a similar story in Aelianus (fr. 72 Domingo-Forasté = Suda s.v. Μέλητος μ 497): M. and Timagoras are both Athenian citizens of noble family. M., who i…

Cerebia

(50 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Κηρεβία; Kērebía). Wife of Poseidon, mother of  Dictys [1] and  Polydectes, who rules over the Cycladean island of Seriphus (schol. Lycoph. 838). But according to Hesiod (fr. 6 Rzach) and Apollodorus (1,88), Magnes and a Naead are the parents of both of them. Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Clytius

(135 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Κλυτίος, Κλύτιος; Klytíos, Klýtios). [German version] [1] Giant Giant, who was killed either by Hecate with flaming torches or by Hephaestus with red-hot irons (Apollod. 1,37). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2] Son of Alcmaeon and Arsinoe [I 3] Son of Alcmaeon and  Arsinoe [I 3]; grandson of Amphiaraus (Apollod. 3,87; Paus. 6,17,6). The soothsaying family of the  Clyti(a)dae in Elis can be traced back to C. (Cic. Div. 1,91). Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [3] Argonaut Argonaut, son of Eurytus of Oechalia (Apoll. Rhod. 1,86; 2,1043). C. was killed b…

Norax

(44 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Νῶραξ/ Nôrax). Son of Hermes and Erytheia, daughter of Geryoneus. According to legend, N. led the Iberians out of Spanish Tartessus to Sardinia, and founded the first town there, which was named Nora [1] after him (Paus. 10,17,5). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Marpessa

(180 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle) | Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen)
(Μάρπησσα; Márpēssa, ‘the robbed one’). [German version] [1] Daughter of the Aetolian river god Evenus Daughter of the Aetolian river god Evenus [3]. She is kidnapped by Idas, who escapes the persecuting Evenus with the help of his father Poseidon. M.'s father plunges into the river, which is named after him. M. is then taken from Idas by Apollo, and a fight ensues between him and the god, during the course of which Idas disarms the god of his bow (Hom. Il. 9,555ff.). Zeus settles the dispute by leaving the ch…

Oeagrus

(86 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Οἴαγρος/ Oíagros). Father of the singer Orpheus (Pind. fr. 128c,11f.; Pl. Symp. 179d; Diod. Sic. 3,65,6; 4,25,2 etc.). The Muse Calliope [1] is usually said to be the mother of Orpheus (Apollod. 1,14; Apoll. Rhod. 1,23ff. with schol.); variants are Polyhymnia (schol. Apoll. Rhod. l.c.) and Cleio. O's homeland was Thracia, where Orpheus has also been localized. The parents of O. were Methone and Pierus (Charax FHG 3 fr. 20) or Charops [2], to whom Dionysus gave Thracia (Diod. 3,65). Frey, Alexandra (Basle)

Loxias

(117 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λοξίας; Loxías). Epiclesis of the god Apollo (Pind. Pyth. 3,28; Pind. Isthm. 7,49; Hdt. 1,91; 4,163; Aesch. Sept. 618; Soph. OT 853). It is striking that the combination Apollo L. does not occur; the reference to Apollo as a Delphian oracle god, however, is clear (cf. l.c.). If the name L. is derived from loxós ‘bent’, ‘crooked’, then it refers to Apollo's dark and confusing oracles (Lucian. Iupp. trag. 28; Plut. Mor. 511b). According to the schol. to Callimachus, Apollo is named L. because he is said to have been brought up by Lox…

Pelanos

(150 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (πελανός; pelanós), a more or less liquid gruel or dough, which could also contain honey, oil, poppies, milk or wine, was thrown in the fire as a sacrificial offering and burnt or poured out (cf. Aesch. Pers. 203f.; Eur. Ion 226f.; 705-707). According to Theophrastus (in Porph. De abstinentia 2,29) pelanos assumed increasingly refined forms in the course of its historical development. The dough was finally mixed and baked into flat bread, cakes or pancakes. P elanos itself, however, was never eaten. It was particularly common as a sacrificial offering  in…

Lacinius

(129 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
[German version] (Λακίνιος, Λακῖνος; Lakínios, Lakînos). Iapygian king who ruled over the land of the Bruttii; eponym of the Lacinium Mountains near Croton. L. took in Croton, who had been banished from Corcyra, and gave him his daughter Laure (or Laurete) in marriage (schol. Lycoph. 1007; schol. Theoc. 4,33b). When Heracles [1] returned from his Geryon adventure, he came into conflict with L. Concerning the cause of this, there are two variant accounts: either L. refused hospitality to Heracles, c…

Cyanippus

(181 words)

Author(s): Frey, Alexandra (Basle)
(Κυάνιππος, ‘Black horse’). [German version] [1] King of Argus King of Argus, son of Aegialeus and of Comaetho, descendant of Bias (Paus. 2,18,4; 30,10). According to Apollodor (1,103), C. is the son of  Adrastus [1] and brother of  Aegialeus [1]. Pausanias confuses his family tree: he speaks about four generations and five rulers but does not include C. among these, as the rulers cannot be called Nēleídai until Talaus (whose mother is a daughter of Neleus). Pausanias includes Diomedes as C.'s guardian as he assumes rule for C. who was a minor [1]. Frey, Alexandra (Basle) [German version] [2…
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