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Chaeremon

(133 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] A Stoic philosopher and Egyptian priest of the 1st century ce, Chaeremon was probably a grammar teacher in Alexandria before becoming the tutor of the later emperor Nero in 49 ce. Chaeremon is the author of a grammatical essay on hieroglyphs ( Hieroglyphica), of an astrological treatise, and of a stoicizing work on Egyptian history ( Aigyptiakḗ historía). The latter was less a historical account than a mytholo¶ gizing description of the ancient Egyptian priesthood as the perfect embodiment of Stoic ideals. Lutz Käppel Bibliography Fragments: F. Jacoby, ed., Die Fragme…

Hymn

(2,107 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz | Hossfeld, Frank-Lothar | Lattke, Michael | Praßl, Franz Karl
[German Version] I. Term and Genre – II. Old Testament – III. New Testament – IV. Liturgical Studies I. Term and Genre The Greek word ὕμνος/ hýmnos, whose etymology is obscure, originally meant, quite unspecifically, simply “song” (the verb ὑμνεῖν/ hymneín, “ to sing”; cf. Hes. Theog. 11.33; Hom. Hym. 3.178, etc.). Yet, from the ¶ 5th/4th century bce at the latest, it meant “song for a god” (cf. Plato, Leges 700 b 1–2; Xenophanes 21 B 1.13 DK; Xenophon, Cyrupaideia 18.1.23) and thence became the general term for “religious song,” and finally for “festival song,” “song o…

Conscience

(4,604 words)

Author(s): Hermsen, Edmund | Käppel, Lutz | Dautzenberg, Gerhard | Härle, Wilfried | Mokrosch, Reinhold
[German Version] I. History of Religion – II. Greco-Roman Antiquity – III. New Testament – IV. Dogmatics and Ethics – V. Practical Theology I. History of Religion The original meaning of the word, (divine) “joint knowledge, knowledge, consciousness, and self-consciousness” (Gk syneídēsis, Lat. conscientia), had already changed in antiquity to refer to an evaluative consciousness of one's own actions. Western philosophical and theological discourse formed various metaphors: the internal; the inner voiced ( daimónion; daimon), also interpreted as the voice …

Hubris

(901 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz | Krötke, Wolf
[German Version] I. Study and History of Religion – II. Philosophy of Religion I. Study and History of Religion Greek ὕβρις, “pride, infringement, maltreatment, outrage.” The etymology of hybris is obscure (the second syllable may be related to βριαρός/ briarós, “strong”). The popular etymological derivation from ὑπέρ/ hypér, “exceeding (the correct amount),” common since the time of Homer, may not be correct for phonetic reasons. Hubris is the basic mental attitude that causes people to “go too far” when pursuing their own interests, and …

Ezekiel the Tragedian

(263 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] was a Hellenistic Jew, presumably from Alexandria, who authored a Greek tragedy, Exagoge ( The Exodus, i.e. from Egypt) following Exod 1–15 (LXX) sometime after 240 bce but surely before 100 ce. The extant fragments (a total of 269 verses) represent the largest ¶ preserved portion of Greek tragedy after Euripides and, simultaneously, the largest preserved portion of Judeo-Hellenistic poetry. The following scenes have been preserved: 1. Moses reports about his fate to this poin…

Eudaimonia,

(644 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] from Greek εὐδαιμονία, meaning “happiness, bliss” (Lat. beatitudo). Originally a religious concept ( eudaímōn, “having a good daimon,” “blessed by God”; cf. Euripides, Orestes 667), it was often used in the sense of having great material wealth, and only entered the vocabulary of philosophical ethics in the 6th/5th century bce. The pre-Socratics were the first to strip the term of its material connotations and used the concept of eudaimonía to describe a good inner disposition of the human soul (cf. Democritus in: Vorsokratiker 68 B 77, …

Euripides

(423 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] (c. 485/484 bce, Salamis – 407/406, Pella). With Aeschylus and Sophocles, Euripides was the third great tragedian of classical Greece. Historically reliable information about his life is scanty. He was probably the son of a landowner and a mother from a distinguished family. In Athens he is said to have been a pupil of the Sophists Anaxagoras, Prodicus, and Protagoras, as well as being a friend of Socrates. He first appeared as a tragedian in 455 bce. He went on to produce 92 plays. In his old age, he finally left Athens for the co…

Hesiod

(543 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] (c. 700 bce), the oldest Greek poet of whom there is authentic information concerning his person. His father, a merchant, was forced to leave the Aeolian city of Cyme and settled down in Boeotian Ascra (Hes. Erga kai hemerai [ Erga] 635–640). After his death, an inheritance dispute broke out between Hesiod and his brother Perses ( Erga 35–39). A first prize in a poetry contest in Chalcis is also documented ( Erga 650–659). Tradition attributes the following works to Hesiod's authorship: Theogonia ( Theogony), Erga kai hemerai ( Works and Days), and the Aspis ( Shield). Signi…

Daimon

(283 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz
[German Version] Greek δαίμων, may be etymologically related to δαίω “disperse” (i.e. the fateless?); originally “divine being, divine power” (= ϑεός, “god”) (Hom. Iliad 1.222 etc.), but already in Hes. Erga 121–126 it referred to the “soul of a deceased person.” The two concepts fuse in the image of daimons as punishing avengers (souls of the ¶ murdered execute vengeance as daimons). The concept of the “personal” daimon that influences the fate of the individual appeared from the 6th century bce (Theognis 161–164, Heraclitus 22 B 119 D.-K., Pindarus, Olympia 13.28, 105, Sophoc. Trachin…

Makaron Nesoi

(326 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
(αἱ τῶν μακάρων νῆσοι; hai tôn makárōn nêsoi, Lat. insulae fortunatae, ‘Islands of the blessed'). [German version] [1] Mythical country Since Hes. Op. 167-173, the mythical country to which heroes are transported - instead of to dark, mouldy Hades like ‘normal people’ - when their lives on earth are over. The concept of the makaron nesoi (MN) is closely linked with the idea of Elysium (Hom. Od. 4,561ff.) as the place were the blessed reside after death (cf. Pind. Ol. 2,68-80; Hdt. 3,26; Aristoph. Vesp. 640; Eur. Hel. 1677; Aristot. Protrepticus fr. …

Pherecydes

(735 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin)
(Φερεκύδης; Pherekýdēs). [German version] [1] P. of Syrus Mythographer and cosmologist, 6th cent. BC Greek mythographer and cosmologist, 6th cent. BC; according to an older tradition, he was a contemporary of Alyattes ( c. 605-560 BC; Pherecydes 7 A 2 DK; Acusilaus 9 A 1 DK), whilst according to another tradition, the acme of his career as a writer was in the 59th Olympiad (544-541 BC, so he would have been a contemporary of Cyrus [2]; Diog. Laert. 1,118 and 121; cf. Pherecydes 7 A 1 DK). According to Diog. Laert. 1,116, his book was still extant in the 3rd cent. AD; its title was probably Heptámych…

Periphas

(113 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Περίφας; Períphas). [German version] [1] Hero at Troy, killed by Ares Mythical hero at Troy, from Aetolia, killed by Ares (Hom. Il. 5,842. 847). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Hero at Troy, comrade of Neoptolemus Mythical hero at Troy, comrade of Neoptolemus [1] (Verg. Aen. 2,476). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] Trojan Trojan, herald of Anchises, in whose shape Apollo roused Aeneas [1] to battle (Hom. Il. 17,323). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [4] Archaic Attic king before even Cecrops Mythical archaic king of Attica, before even Cecrops; venerate…

Thaletas

(134 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Θαλήτας/ Thalḗtas; in some authors wrongly Thales, e.g. Paus. 1,14,4; Plut. Lycurgus 4), choral lyricist of the 7th cent. BC, from Gortyn (in Crete). Besides Xenodamus of Cythera, Xenocritus [1] of Locri and others, he was involved in various musical innovations in Sparta in the generation after Terpander (Plut. De musica 9,1134b-c). Like these, he composed paeans (Plut. loc.cit.) and hyporchḗmata (Schol. Pind. Pyth. 2,127). According to later authors of musical theory, he introduced paeonic and cretic rhythms to Sparta…

Phaeaces

(445 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Φαίακες/ Phaíakes, Latin Phaeaces, the Phaeacians). Mythical seafaring people, ruled by King Alcinous [1] (together with 12 other 'kings') and his wife Arete [1]. The P. live on the island of Scheria, to which they were led by Nausithous [1] from Hyperea (Hom. Od. 6,5; 7,58). There are comprehensive accounts of the P. in Hom. Od. books 6-8 and 13. The P. receive Odysseus as their guest after the king's daughter Nausicaa discovers him shipwrecked on the beach. They entertain him lavi…

Nymphs

(305 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (νύμφαι/ nýmphai, lat. nymphae). Female nature daimones in human form. Νύμφη ( nýmphē) means ‘young woman’ or ‘bride’ (cf. lat. nubere: ‘to marry’), hence a ‘young woman of marriageable age’. In Homer the term is frequently used for human women (Hom. Il. 3,130; 9,536; Hom. Od. 5 passim), but the concept of nymphs as nature deities already exists as well (Hom. Il. 6,420; 20,8; 24,616 etc.). Nymphs are active wherever there is life in nature. Despite their divinity they are not immortal. They usually appear as groups, often a chain of dancers or t…

Pandocus

(74 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Πάνδοκος; Pándokos). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, wounded by the Telamonian Aias [1] (Hom. Il. 11,490). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of Palaestra Father of Palaestra who was loved by Hermes. P. lived at a crossroads and killed the wanderers staying with him, for which he was killed by Hermes at Palaestra's request. The guesthouses are called after him pandokeîa ('accepting everyone'; Serv. Aen. 8,138; EM 647,56). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Salmoneus

(238 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Σαλμωνεύς/ Salmōneús). Son of Aeolus [1], brother of Athamas, Sisyphus and Cretheus. S. had delusions of grandeur and endeavoured to have himself worshipped as Zeus, driving around on a chariot drawn by horses, producing artificial lightning flashes and making bronzen cauldrons resound to give the impression of thunder. Zeus flung him into Tartarus. S.' daughter Tyro distanced herself from her father, was spared and married Cretheus (Hes. fr. 10a, 25-27 M.-W.; fr. 30,1-30 M.-W.; A…

Ocnus

(155 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] (Ὄκνος/ Óknos, Latin Ocnus). 'One who hesitates', 'one who wavers': character punished in the Underworld; he is forced to twist a rope forever, which is then devoured by a donkey standing behind him (cf. Danaids, Sisyphus, Tantalus; Prop. 4,3,21f.). According to Paus. 10,29,1f., O. was a symbol of a hard-working man whose wasteful wife kept using up what he had earned. Other versions: O. sits helpless before a donkey that has stumbled, as its load of wood falls to the ground (Apul. M…

Mermerus

(102 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Μέρμερος; Mérmeros). [German version] [1] Trojan Trojan, killed by Antilochus (Hom. Il. 14,513). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Father of the mythical King Ilus of Ephyre Father of a mythical king, Ilius of Ephyre in Thesprotia, visited by Odysseus (Hom. Od. 1,259f.). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [3] A son of Jason [1] and Medea One of the two sons of Jason [1] and Medea. He and his brother Pheres are killed by their mother in revenge on Jason (Eur. Med.). According to Paus. 2,3,7, he is killed by a lioness during a hunt on Corfu. Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)

Erythraean paean

(87 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
[German version] A  paean to  Asclepius in dactyls preserved in an inscription from Erythrae [2] ( c. 380-360 BC), sung by the community during the sacrifice in the Asclepius cult as an appeal for good health; the inscription contains three other paeans with cult directions. Probably composed as early as the 5th cent. BC, the paean remained popular (numerous inscriptions) in many places until the Imperial period.  Metre Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography F. Graf, Nordion. Kulte, 1985, 250-257 L. Käppel, Paian, 1992, 189-200; 370-374 (with text, translation, bibliography).
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