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Stentor

(108 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Στέντωρ/ Sténtōr, aptonym: 'roarer' [1]). Greek warrior at Troy, whose powerful voice is equivale

Dolon

(126 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Δόλων/ Dólōn, cf. δόλος/ dólos, ‘guile’). Son of the Trojan herald Eumedes. During a night reconnaissance raid in the Greek camp, for which he had volunteered in order to gain Achilles' immortal horses, he fell into the hands of the Greek scouts Diomedes and Odysseus. In an (unsuccessful) bid to save his skin, he readily betrayed his own cause, which cost the life of the Trojan ally, the Thracian King Rhesus (Hom. Il. 10, so-called Doloneia, probably post- Iliad [1]; [Eur.] Rhes.). By contrast with this portrait of D. ─ for the Stoa he was the archetypical…

Pandarus

(805 words)

Author(s): Starke, Frank (Tübingen) | Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Πάνδαρος; Pándaros, Lat. Pandarus). [German version] [1] Trojan troop commander Trojan troop commander, son of Lycaon (but cf. also Carcabus);Verg. Aen. 5,495-497 mentions Eurythion [5] as his brother. According to Hom. Il. 4,103 and 121, P. lived in Zelia (Troas) the contingent of which was under his command (Hom. Il. 2,824-827), whilst Hom. Il. 5,105 and (implicitly) 173 identifies Lycia (Lycii, Lycia) as his country of origin eventhough the Lycian tr…

Calchas

(284 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κάλχας; Kálchas, Lat. Calchas). Son of Thestor, seer and augur for the Greeks during the Trojan War who ‘knew what is, what will be, and what was’ (Hom. Il. 1.70). To the army gathered in  Aulis awaiting departure, C. correctly prophesied, based on the flight of birds, that Troy would be defeated in the tenth year of the war (Hom. Il. 2.303ff.; Kypria argumentum p. 40 Bernabé). When the Greek fleet was prevented from departing due to lack of wind, C. explained that Artemis was ang…

Copreus

(173 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κοπρεύς; Kopreýs). [German version] [1] Servant of Eurystheus Son of  Pelops. He transmits to  Hercules the tasks ordered by  Eurystheus, who fears personal contact. For this reason, Homer reverses the normally descending genealogical line in hero epics and refers to C. as ‘the worse father of the better son’ (Hom. Il. 15,639-641). In Eur. Heracl., C. demands in Eurystheus' name the release of the  Heraclidae, who are seeking asylum from the Attic king  Demophon [2]. According to Apollod. 2,5,1, Eurystheus had cleansed C. from a blood guilt. The name is not originally derived from kópro…

Lichas

(502 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | Welwei, Karl-Wilhelm (Bochum) | Ameling, Walter (Jena)
(Λίχας; Líchas). [German version] [1] Messenger of Hercules Herald of Hercules [1]; he brings Hercules the gar…

Thersites

(222 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Θερσίτης; Thersítēs). Greek warrior at Troy. In the Iliad (Hom. Il. 2,211-277) T. is a physically deformed (the corresponding description is unique in the Iliad) and quarrelsome grumbler, hated by all for his sarcastic remarks - esp. by Achilles [1] and Odysseus. After the latter has stopped the army from returning home, T. attacks Agamemnon with arguments consciously referring to those of Achilles (Hom. Il. B. 1) but also criticizing him.…

Idaeus

(243 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basle) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Ἰδαῖος; Idaîos). [German version] [1] Epithet of Zeus Epithet of  Zeus from the Ida on Crete (Eur. fr. 472 TGF; Inscr. Creticae 1,12,1) or near Troy (Hom. Il. 24,291; Verg. Aen. 7,139; in Celaenae: Plut. Mor. 306e f.) and of  Heracles as Daktylos I. and founder of the Olympic Games (Paus. 5,7,6ff.; 8,31,3; also in Elis and Erythrae: Paus. 6,23,3; 9,27,8).…

Iphianassa

(163 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Ἰφιάνασσα; Iphiánassa). [German version] [1] Daughter of Proetus and Stheneboea Daughter of  Proetus and  Stheneboea (Hes. fr. 129,16-24 M-W), cursed together with her sisters Lysippe and Iphinoe with madness owing to disrespect to the cult of Dionysus (Hes. fr. 131 M-W) or slander of Hera (Bacchyl. 11,40ff.). Finally, by sacrificing to Artemis Proteus makes her change Hera's mind. According to another version (Pherecydes, FGrH 3 F 114; Hdt. 9,34), the seer  Melampus heals the daughters after hagglin…

Laestrygones

(260 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Λαιστρυγόνες; Laistrýgónes). A mythic and fairy-tale-like people of man-eating giants, who raise cattle but do not engage in agriculture (cf. Cyclopes). In the course of his wanderings, Odysseus lands …

Thamyris

(160 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Θάμυρις/ Thámyris, also Θαμύρας/ Thamýras). Mythical singer from Thrace (cf. Orpheus), who in human overestimation of himself challenges the Muses to compete with him and, naturally, loses (for the motif, cf. Marsyas [1], Niobe, Capaneus). As a punishment they take his gift of song away (again) and maim him (Hom. Il. 2,594-600, without further specifying this; Hes. Cat. 65 speaks of blinding). The same subject was probably dealt with by Sophocles in his tragedy

Cilla

(241 words)

Author(s): Schwertheim, Elmar (Münster) | Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] [1] Name of two settlements (Κίλλα; Kílla, Lat. Cilla). There seem to have been at least two settlements of this name…

Iambe

(142 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Ἰάμβη; Iámbē). Maid in the house of  Celeus, where  Demeter, mourning her abducted daughter Persephone, accepts nothing but a simple chair, which I. offers to her (H. Hom. 2,192-197; reverse ritual related to thrónōsis, placing the initiant on a foot stool [1]). I. makes Demeter laugh with her cheeky jokes …

Cebriones

(89 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Κεβριόνης; Kebriónēs). Bastard son of  Priamus, half-brother of  Hector, who makes him his chariot driver after Archeptolemus' death (Hom. Il. 8,318f.). C. participates in the storming of the Greeks' ship camp; the chariot is entrusted to a weaker fighter for this time period (ibid. 12,91ff.). Finally, Patroclus kills C. with the throw of a stone and ridicules him as he falls from the chariot by comparing him with a diver (ibid. 16,737-750). Nünlist, René (Basle) Bibliography P. Wathelet…

Rhesus

(268 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)

Sarpedon

(481 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Hild, Friedrich (Vienna)
(Σαρπηδών/ Sarpēdṓn). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. Son of Zeus and Laodameia [1]. In the Trojan War, S. and his cousin Glaucus [4] command the Lycians (Lycii), the strongest and remotest allies of the Trojans (Hom…

Cedalium

(100 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)

Capaneus

(154 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
[German version] (Καπανεύς; Kapaneús). Son of Hipponous [3], married to  Evadne [2] and father of  Sthenelus. C. is one of the  Seven against Thebes (and is therefore to be included in the Theban epics even if he does not appear in the surviving fragments). His boastful statement that not even the strike of a thunderbolt from Zeus could prevent him from taking part in the conquest of Thebes provokes Zeus to strike him down just so (Aesch. Sept. 423ff.). According to Stesi…

Coeranus

(203 words)

Author(s): Nünlist, René (Basle)
(Κοίρανος; Koíranos). [German version] [1] Descendant of Melampus Belongs to the family tree of  Melampus (Hes. Cat. 136,3), but his exact position therein is not certain; father of the seer  Poly(e)idus (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 112; Paus. 1,43,5). Nünlist, René (Basle) [German version] [2] Charioteer of Meriones Charioteer for  Meriones; he saves  Idomeneus' [1] life by bringing a chariot to him at exactly the right moment, so that he instead of Idomeneus is hit by  Hector's sp…
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