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(296 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (Φρῦνις/ Phrŷnis). Citharist from Mytilene, active 446-416 in Athens; a key figure of the 'New Music' of the late 5th century BC [5. 12]. Of his works nothing survives. Brought to the cithara (in about 480) by Aristocleides, a descendant of Terpander (schol. Aristoph. Nub. 971), P. was victorious at the Panathenaea in 446 [2. 40ff.] and was defeated in about 416 by Timotheus [4. 1332]. By applying freer rhythms (Phot. 320b), altered tuning (Plut. De musica 1141f) and kampaí (here: 'modulations') [3. 184f., 190] he renewed Terpander's citharody (Plut. De m…


(2,153 words)

Author(s): Hausleiter | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] I. Egypt and Ancient Orient As in all ancient culture, dance played an important role in the Ancient Orient as well as in Egypt; the documentary evidence for the latter, however, is incomparably better, both in pictures and in texts ─ there was hardly a part of life not involving dance: dances accompanied ‘rites of passage’ were magic-apotropaic, ecstatic, worshipful, amusing-entertaining, and even eroticizing. Children, women, and men danced together in separate groups; alongside, the…


(3,201 words)

Author(s): Chase, Michael (Victoria, BC) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Πορφύριος; Porphýrios), Neoplatonist philosopher and scholar. [German version] A. Life P. ( c. AD 234 -305/310) came from a wealthy family of Phoenician Tyre (Tyrus). Nothing is known of his childhood. At Athens he studied mathematics under Demetrius, grammar with Apollonius, rhetoric with Minucianus and especially philology, literary criticism and philosophy with the great scholar Longinus [1], a representative of Middle Platonism. Possibly on Longinus' recommendation, P. left Athens in 263 to join the sc…


(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …


(975 words)

Author(s): Bloch, René (Berne) | Riedweg, Christoph (Zürich) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Δάμων; Dámōn) [German version] [1] Prince of the Telchines Prince of the  Telchines. Father-in-law of Minos and ancestor of Miletus. When the Telchines were struck dead by lightning by Jupiter because they poisoned crops, D. and his family were spared in gratitude for hospitality provided. Only his daughter Macelo and her husband were among the victims (Nic. in the schol. Ov. Ib. 475). Bloch, René (Berne) [German version] [2] Pythagorean from Syracuse A Pythagorean from Syracuse, friend of Phintias, for whom he stood surety with his life. According to Aristoxenus (…


(537 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Albiani, Maria Grazia (Bologna)
(Παγκράτης/ Pankrátēs). [German version] [1] Musician, archaic style Musician; according to Aristoxenus [1] an enthusiast of the archaic style ( trópos) of Pindar and Simonides (Plut. De Musica 1137f). Harmon, Roger (Basle) [German version] [2] Poet, 3rd-2nd cent. BC Hellenistic poet (3rd-2nd cent. BC), author of the didactic poem Θαλάσσια ἔργα ( Maritime works), of which three fragments, dealing with the pilotfish, the wrasse and the salp and their 'common' names, are preserved by Athenaeus (who always refers to him as Arkás). Identification with the homonymous author of a Bokchorē…


(7,856 words)

Author(s): Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Pelling, C. B. R. (Oxford) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Πλούταρχος/ Ploútarchos). [German version] [1] Tyrant of Eretria, 4th cent. BC Tyrant of Eretria [1]. As the guest-friend of Meidias [2], the rich opponent of Demosthenes (Dem. Or. 21,110; 21,200), he turned to Athens for help in 349 BC when the exiled Cleitarchus [1] and Callias [9] of Chalcis, supported by Phalaecus of Phocis and Philippus [4] II, threatened his position (Aeschin. In Ctes. 86-88 with schol.). Phocion led the inglorious and expensive expedition in early 348 BC (Dem. Or. 5,5 with schol.; …


(19,876 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Mehl, Andreas (Halle/Saale) | Zahrnt, Michael (Kiel) | Günther, Linda-Marie (Munich) | Schottky, Martin (Pretzfeld) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαῖος/ Ptolemaîos). Personal name meaning 'warlike' (not 'hostile'), first recorded in Hom. Il. 4,228; the name occurred in Macedonia in the 5th and 4th cents. BC, from where it spread to Thessaly, still in the 4th cent. (IG IX 2, 598). It became prominent with the Lagid dynasty, and became common, not only in Egypt, where it may at first have indicated solidarity with the dynasty, but also elsewhere. It underwent many deformations and transmutations. Ptolemies Famous persons: P. [1] I Soter, P. [6] III Euergetes; P. [22], the son of Caesar; the scientist Claudius P. [65]. Ameling, Wa…

Talarius ludus

(331 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (from Latin talus, 'ankle', 'dice'). The four secure written records about the TL allow no final conclusion as to whether it was a Roman game of dice (thus [7. 1842]) or a type of staged presentation in which the performers wore a toga that reached down to their ankles. For Cicero (Cic. Att. 1,16,3; Cic. Off. 1,150), the TL was immoral and the lowest profession next to 'salve vendors' and 'dancers' (Entertainers); Quintilianus (Inst. 11,3,58) emphasises its frolicsomeness and implies song as an accompaniment…


(81 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (Τέρπνος; Terpnós). Famous citharode. When Nero became emperor in 54 AD, he summoned T., listened to him daily and used him as inspiration for his own music (Suet. Nero 20,1); towards the end of his reign (67) Nero was allowed to 'defeat' T. at the Períodos (Cass. Dio 8-10; Philostr. VA 5,7-8). Vespasian in contrast honoured T. with 200,000 HS on the occasion of the restoration of the Roman Theatrum Marcelli (Suet. Vesp. 19). Harmon, Roger (Basle)


(720 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (πυρρίχη/ pyrrhíchē, Latin pyrrhica). A widespread and well-documented ancient weapon dance. Its early date is suggested by the tales of its origin (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. 7,72,7), linking the pyrrhiche with the Curetes (Str. 10,4,16) and with Athena's dances at her own birth (Lucian, Dialogi deorum 13 Macleod) and at the victory over the Titans (Dion. Hal. Ant. Rom. ibid.); other explanations derive the pyrrhiche from Achilles' dance before the funeral pyre ( pyrá) of Patroclus (Aristot. fr. 519 Rose), from Pyrrhus' dance of victory (Archil. fr. 190 Ber…


(194 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (Σακάδας; Sakádas). Poet and famous aulos player from Argos. He participated in the second organisation ( katástasis) of music in Sparta (Plut. Mor. 1134bc) and won the Pythian agṓn (Pythia [2]) three times in a row from 586 BC in Delphi, when solo performances of the aulos were introduced there (Paus. 10,7,3-5; 6,14,10; cf. Musical instruments V.B.1.). His winning piece, which described Apollo's fight with the dragon in five parts, became known as the ‘Pythian nomos’ (Nomos [3]; ibid. 2,22,8; [1]). S. also wrote elegiac verses (Plut. Mor. 1134a), a nomos for choir in …


(6,685 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Döring, Klaus (Bamberg) | Hoesch, Nicola (Munich) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Et al.
(Σωκράτης; Sōkrátēs). [German version] [1] Sculptor from Thebes, c. 470 BC Sculptor from Thebes. He created a cult statue of Meter Dindymene for Pindar [2] in Thebes (Paus. 9,25,3) and therefore must have worked in the 'Severe Style' around 470 BC. Paus. 1,22,8 attributed a relief of the Charites and a Hermes Propylaios on the Acropolis in Athens to the philosopher S. [2] as the alleged sculptor. The relief of the Charites is identified as the model of a much-copied type. Because it is dated to around 470,…


(88 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (Ὠλήν/ Ōlḗn). Founder of a cult, from the time before Orpheus (Paus. 9,27,2), from Lycia (Callim. H. 4,304-305) or descending from the Hyperboreans (Paus. 10,5,7-8). O. brought the worship of Apollo (cf. his epithet Lýkeios , Aesch. Ag. 1257) to Delphi (Paus. 10,5,7-8). He also brought hymns to Eileithyia (ibid. 1,18,5), Hera (ibid. 2,13,3) and the Hyperboreans Opis and Arge (Hdt. 4,35) to Delos, where these hymns were still sung in the 2nd cent. AD; Pausanias quotes them (2,13,3; 5,7,8; 8,21,3; 9,27,2). Harmon, Roger (Basle)

Musicians (female)

(2,352 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] I. Introduction Historical studies of music in the ancient world, as in other eras, tacitly assumed that the contributions of men are the unspoken universal, with women's contributions being regarded only as a special case. A gender-conscious examination (cf. Gender studies) of ancient musical culture reveals paradigms such as ‘public/private’, ‘productive/reproductive’ or ‘canonical/non-canonical,’ which were identified by feminist musicologists for later eras [17; 12; 3; 10; 19; 1…


(340 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Ζῆθος/ Zêthos). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus and Antiope (Pind. fr. 52k,44: Ζέαθος/ Zéathos). Son of Zeus and Antiope [1]. A parallel is sometimes drawn between Z. and his twin brother Amphion [1], and Castor and Polydeuces (Dioscuri) (Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 124; Eur. HF 29). Together with Zeus, Epopeus is also considered to be their father (Asius fr. 1 EpGF). Exposed after birth, the twins are brought up by herdsmen (Exposure, myths and legends of). When Antiope manages to escape from her captivity by Dirc…


(113 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (Πρόνομος/ Prónomos). The most outstanding of the Theban auletes (Anth. Plan. 16,28), aulos teacher of Alcibiades [3] (Ath. 4,184d). Was the first to play several keys on one and the same aulos (Paus. 9,12,5; cf. Ath. 14,631e). His facial expression and body movement heightened the effectiveness of his playing (Paus. 9,12,6). A vase painting from c. 400 BC depicts P. playing (interpretation of the painting is debated [1. 186-187; 2]). As late as 369 BC, his melodies were played to accompany the building of Messene (Paus. 4,27,7). Harmon, Roger (Basle) Bibliography 1 Pi…


(224 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (σιμῳδία/ simōidía). A Hellenistic genre of ‘low’ lyric poetry, named after its most important representative, Simus of Magnesia (Str. 14,1,41; Aristocles in Ath. 14,620d). According to Aristocles, sim ōidía was a newer term for hilarōidía (Ath. loc.cit.), which had become popular with some because of the fame of Simus in comparison to earlier hilarōidoí. It is related by Strabo to lysiōidía (‘play with female characters in male attire’) and magōidía (‘rude pantomime’; Str. loc.cit.; cf. Ath. 14,620e) as well as to kinaidologeȋn (‘talk of obscene things’); cf. Ath.…


(436 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (τεχνῖται/ technîtai). Originally a general term for artisans and artists, attested epigraphically from 278/7 BC in the (always expanded [1. 2519]) formula οἱ περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον τεχνῖται ('the technitai around Dionysus'). These 'artists' associations' ( koina, synodoi) brought together, amongst others musicians, poets, actors(perh. including women: [2. 54-55], but cf. [1. 2527]), providers of costumes and stage properties, to meet the increasing demand for musical and staged performances of the Attic style in the He…


(670 words)

Author(s): Schmitz, Winfried (Bielefeld) | Lakmann, Marie-Luise (Münster) | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Θράσυλλος; Thrásyllos). [German version] [1] Athenian commander in the Peloponnesian War (also Θράσυλος; Thrásylos). From Athens, served as a hoplite in the armed forces on Samos in 411 BC and was significantly involved there in the overthrow of an oligarchic revolution (Thuc. 8,73). Together with Thrasybulus [3], he organized the resistance against the oligarchs in Athens ( tetrakósioi [2]) and, through an oath, obliged the Athenian forces and the Samians to defend their democracy and continue the war (Thuc. 8,75,2). After being elected stratēgoí (Thuc…

Sound theory

(1,291 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Harmon
[German version] I. Origins It is difficult to differentiate the concepts of basic acoustic and musical terms in the ancient European languages, just as it is in modern languages ( cf. German Klang (‘sound’) and Ton (‘tone’, ‘sound’), [3. 130]). We can, however, trace the development of individual words from everyday usage down to a specific technical meaning in the wake of the emergence of ancient science. In Greek, this semantic field includes such terms as ψόφος/ psóphos, φθόγγος/ phthóngos, φωνή/ phōnḗ and τόνος/ tónos. P sóphos is the general term for ‘noise’ as a phenomeno…


(1,304 words)

Author(s): Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Jansen-Winkeln, Karl (Berlin) | Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Et al.
(Πτολεμαίς; Ptolemaís). [German version] [1] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4] Daughter of Ptolemaeus [1] I and Eurydice [4]; presumably married to a descendant of the pharaoh Nectanebus [2]; from 298 BC betrothed, and from 287 married to Demetrius [2] Poliorcetes. PP VI 14565. Ameling, Walter (Jena) Bibliography W. Huß, Das Haus des Nektanebis und das Haus des Ptolemaios, in: AncSoc 25, 1994, 111-117  J. Seibert, Historische Beiträge zu den dynastischen Verbindungen in hellenistischer Zeit, 1967, 30 ff. 74 f. [German version] [2] P. from Cyrene Ancient scholar of m…


(338 words)

Author(s): Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) | Harmon, Roger (Basle) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA) | Högemann, Peter (Tübingen)
(Ξενόφιλος/ Xenóphilos). [German version] [1] Comedy writer of the 5th cent. BC Comedy writer of the 5th cent. BC, victorious once at the Lenaia [1. test. 2] and possibly also once at the Dionysia [1. test. 1]; neither play titles nor fragments survive. Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen) Bibliography 1 PCG VII, 1989, 803. [German version] [2] X. of Chalcidice Pythagorean and music theorist, c. 400 BC Pupil of Philolaus [2] (Diog. Laert. 8,46) and one of the last of the Pythagoreans (Iambl. v.P. 251; cf. Pythagoras [2]). X. was thought remarkable in Antiquity prim…


(129 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] (ῥόμβος/ rhómbos, Lat. rhombus, ‘bull-roarer’), a wooden object which, when attached to a string (Schol. Clem. Al. Protrepticus 2,17,2) and twirled in the air (Eur. Hel. 1362), produced a loud (Schol. Apoll. Rhod. 1,1139), hissing (Schol. Clem. Al. ibid.) sound, the volume of which depended on the force of the motion (Archyt. fr. 1). It was used in the mysteries of Dionysus (Anth. Pal. 6,165), Cybele (Ath. 14,636a) and Demeter (OF 110). The rhombos as a tool of magic - often connected with the wryneck ( iynx ) - is barely distinguishable in the sources ( e.g., Theoc. Id. 2,3…


(3,978 words)

Author(s): Fortenbaugh, William W. | Harmon, Roger (Basle)
(Θεόφραστος/ Theóphrastos). Peripatetic philosopher, c. 371/0-287/6 BC, pupil and successor of Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]). [German version] I. Life Peripatetic philosopher, c. 371/0-287/6 BC T., born in Eresus on Lesbos, is said to have been a pupil of Alcippus. If he also studied in Athens with Plato [1], he must have had contact not only with Aristotle (Aristoteles [6]), but also with Speusippus and Xenocrates. After Plato's death (347), T. followed Aristotle to Asia Minor, then to Macedonia when Aristotle was summ…

Song of Sicilus (Seikilos)

(140 words)

Author(s): Harmon, Roger (Basle)
[German version] The only surviving ancient Greek song with musical notation whose origin is neither liturgical nor dramatic. It is inscribed on a grave stele from the 1st century AD, found in Tralles (Asia minor) in 1883; now in Copenhagen, NM (inv. 14897). The song is preceded by a votive inscription and followed by a now mostly destroyed explanation, both in the name of Sicilus (Σείκιλος/ Seíkilos), the donor of the stele. The text of the song, consisting of four iambic dimeters, exhorts: “As long as you live, shine!” The melody raises problems: the spec…
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