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(395 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Baltes, Matthias (Münster)
(Ἀλκίνοος; Alkínoos). [German version] [1] Mythical king of the Phaeacians Highest king of the Phaeacians on the legendary Island of Scheria, which he rules with twelve other kings, as the thirteenth (Hom. Od. 8,390). According to Homer, son of Nausithous, hence grandson of Poseidon (Od. 7,56 ff.). Married to his clever niece Arete (Od. 7,65 ff.), with whom he had five sons and the daughter Nausicaa (Od. 6,15 ff., 62). The gods honour A. by their visible appearance (Od. 7,201 ff.), Hephaestus created the …


(508 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Bremmer, Jan N. (Groningen) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Αἴολος; Aíolos). [German version] [1] Eponym of the Aeolean tribe Eponym of the Aeolean tribe. Son of Hellen (Hes. fr. 9 MW), grandson of  Deucalion, whose many genealogical connections help to give structure to the mythical worldview of the Greeks, including geographically. His brothers Dorus and Xythos emigrate, A. is king in the paternal Magnesia/Thessaly. By Enarete, daughter of Deimachus, he has many children: the sons Cretheus, Athamas,  Sisyphus, Salmoneus and Perieres (Hes. fr. 10 MW; Apollod. 1,…


(586 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Stanzel, Karl-Heinz (Tübingen) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Εὔανδρος; Eúandros). [German version] [1] Mythical founder of the first settlement on the Palatine Arcadian-Roman hero, according to Paus. 8,43,1ff. the son of Hermes and an Arcadian nymph (Themis, Nicostrate: Plut. Quaest. Rom. 278B-C), or alternatively the prophesying  Carmentis from Pallantium. In Hes. fr. 168MW, he is a son of Echemus of Tegea and Tyndareos' daughter Timandra, Hellenism makes him the son of the Italian Sibyl. Banished because of his involvement in a popular uprising or the murder of one …


(511 words)

Author(s): Huß, Werner (Bamberg) | Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
(Ἄτλας; Átlas). [German version] [1] Name of the north-west African Tertiary folded mountain range Name of the north-west African Tertiary folded mountain range. From the two Mediterranean coastal mountain ranges of the Rif A. and the Tell A. the Middle A. branches off in Morocco; the High A. rises in the south, which on the east borders the Sahara A. The Anti A., which extends south of the High A., do not belong to the Tertiary mountain range of the A.; Rif A., Middle A. and High A. enclose the Moroccan mese…


(297 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (Ἄδμητος; Ádmētos). King in Thessalian Pherae, son of Phere and (Peri-) Clymene. Participant in the Argonaut expedition ( Argonauts; Apoll. Rhod. 1,49; Hyginus, fab. 14), in the Calydonian boar hunt ( Meleager; Hyg. Fab. 173) and in the games to commemorate the dead for Pelias. Apollo served him -- as shepherd (Apollod. 3,122; Hyg. Fab. 49-50) for one year (nine years according to Serv. Aen. 7,761) -- because of the Cyclops crime or out of love (Call. H. Apoll. 47 ff.; Lucian. sacr…


(341 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
(Ἐπειός; Epeiós). [German version] [1] Builder of the Trojan Horse Son of Panopeus of Phocis (Eur. Tro. 9 with schol.; Paus. 2,29,4). He took part in the Trojan War, and won the boxing match at Patroclus' funeral games (Hom. Il. 23,664ff.), but was less successful in throwing Eëtion's iron discus (835ff.). E.'s subordinate social position as the ‘water-carrier of the Atreids’ is documented in Stesichorus (fr. 200 PMGF; cf. also Pl. Ion 533b). E. had the reputation of being a proverbial coward ─ in punishm…


(3,163 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Nutton, Vivian (London) | Nesselrath, Heinz-Günther (Göttingen) | Montanari, Franco (Pisa)
(Χρύσιππος; Chrýsippos). [German version] [1] Favourite son of Pelops Favourite son of  Pelops from his first marriage with the nymph Axioche (schol. Pind. Ol. 1,89, schol. Eur. Or. 4) or Danais (Plut. Mor. 313E). Two tales are associated with him: Zeus (Praxilla 3,6 Edmonds = Ath. 13 p. 603a) or  Laeus, C.'s teacher in chariot driving (thus presumably in the ‘C.’ of Euripides, TGF fr. 839-844, possibly already in the Laios of Aeschylus), became infatuated with the extraordinarily beautiful youth and abducted him either from his father's house or the Nemean games …


(340 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (Ἐνδυμίων; Endymíōn). Son of Aethlius (or Zeus) and Calyce, a daughter of Aeolus (Paus. 5,8,1; Apollod. 1,56). In the Peloponnesian legend cycle the king of Elis (Ibycus Fr. 284 PMGF; Paus. 5,8,1), who led the Aetolians there from Thessaly, has his sons Paeon, Epius and Aetolus compete for their inheritance in a race. This is probably why a funerary monument of E. was shown at the stadium in Olympia (Paus. 5,1,4; 6,20,9). In Hesiod (Fr. 245 Merkelbach-West) E. as a favourite of Zeu…


(391 words)

Author(s): Burian, Jan (Prague) | Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
(Δάρδανοι; Dárdanoi). [German version] [5] Powerful Illyrian tribal group in the south-western part of Moesia superior, strongly influenced by Thrace, particularly in the east of the region. The region was within the sphere of influence of the Macedonians, who gained control over Dardania in c. 335 BC. However, the D. continued to strive for a certain degree of independence. In 284 BC they were united under the rule of one king and waged prolonged wars against the Macedonians. In 229 the D. defeated Demetrius II, who died soon after his d…


(283 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (Δαρδανίδαι; Dardanídai). Descendants of the Trojan progenitor  Dardanus, who produced the Trojan ruling dynasty. The genealogy of the D., save their heroines, is recounted by Aeneas in the Illiad (Hom. Il. 20,215ff.): The son of Dardanus, the king of Dardania on Ida, is Erichthonius, whose son is Tros. Tros's three sons are Ilus, Assaracus and  Ganymede. The last is abducted by Zeus's eagle to serve the gods as a cup-bearer (Hom. Il. 5,265f.). Ilus founds Ilium (Conon narr. 12; Str. 13,1,25), his tomb is suppos…

Atreus, Atreides

(660 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀτρεύς; Atreús), Atrides Son of Pelops and Hippodamia; the Atreides are his offspring. In Homer, there is mention of the still peaceful succession of A. to Thyestes and finally  Agamemnon (Hom. Il. 2,105ff.). Strife among brothers and the curse of the Atreides are obviously post-Homeric. After the murder of  Chrysippus, Pelops' favourite son by a nymph (Hellan. FGrH 4 F 157; Hyg. Fab. 85), the murderers A. and Thyestes are cursed by their father and flee from Pisa to Midea and Myc…


(162 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (ᾈτωλός; Aitōlós). Eponym of the Aetolians, according to Hecataeus (FGrH 1 F 15) descendant of Deucalion and of the same generation as other tribal heroes ( Aeolus,  Dorus and Xythus), otherwise son of king  Endymion from Elis (Paus. 5,1,4; Apollod. 1,57). A.'s brother  Epius wins the competition for succession to the throne in Elis. Because of a manslaughter in the funeral games for Azan, A. goes to the land of the Curetes, where he kills his visiting guests Dorus, Laodocus and Po…


(169 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀρκάς; Arkás). Gave his name to the Arcadians. Son of Zeus and  Callisto, brought up on the mountain Cyllene by Hermes' mother Maia, after his own mother was transformed into a bear (Hes. fr. 163 MW; Apollod. 3,101; Hyg. Fab. 224). Presented to Zeus as a meal by his grandfather Lycaon in order to test the omniscience of the god. The resurrected A. later founds Trapezus on the spot where Zeus overturns the table in anger (Hyg. Fab. 176). He is a king of Arcadia and the bringer of c…

Bellerophontes, Bellerophon

(545 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (Βελλεροφόντης, Βελλεροφῶν; Bellerophóntēs, Bellerophôn). According to Homer (Il. 6,152-205), B. belonged to the Corinthian royal family, son of Glaucus and Eurymede (Apollod. 1,85) or Eurynome, grandson of Sisyphus. Or he was the son of Poseidon, who helped him tame  Pegasus, the winged horse of the gods (Pind. Ol. 13,69). Athena also helped him to accomplish this. After committing manslaughter, B. fled to King Proetus of Tiryns, who expiated him (Serv. Aen. 5,118; Tzetz. Lycoph. 17…


(293 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (Aloids, Ἀλωάδαι, Ἀλωεῖδαι; Alōádai, Alōeîdai). Otos and Ephialtes, gigantic sons of Iphimedea and Aloeus (Hom. Il. 5,385 ff. with schol.) or Poseidon (Hom. Od. 11,305 f.; Hes. fr. 19; in Eratosth. FGrH 241 F 35 ‘Earth-born’). Only nine years old, they are already nine fathoms wide and nine yards tall and hold Ares prisoner for 13 months in an iron barrel, because he is guilty of the death of  Adonis. Their stepmother Eeriboea, however, tells Hermes of the prison of the exhausted god …


(1,277 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Harrauer, Christine (Vienna) | Inwood, Brad (Toronto) | Schwerteck, Hans (Tübingen) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
(Δάρδανος; Dárdanos). [German version] [1] Son of Zeus Son of Zeus, who of all his mortal sons loved this one the most (Hom. Il. 20,215; 304), and either a mortal mother or the Atlantid Electra/Elektryone (Hes. fr. 177/80 MW; Hellanic. FGrH 4 F 23). Eponymous hero of the  Dardani, who lived on Mt Ida, and in Homer are linked with the Trojans and frequently synonymous with them. D. is the progenitor of the Trojan ruling dynasty. Possibly mentioned in the Ilioupersis, he originates from Arcadia, where he is supposed to have been born in a cave (Ilioupersis fr. 1 PEG I; Str. 8…


(299 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
(Ἀμφίλοχος; Amphílochos). [German version] [1] Mythical seer Mythical seer, son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle from Argus. With his brother Alcmaeon he takes revenge on his mother, for his father (Hom. Od. 15,248; Apollod. 3,86). Or A. is purified from matricide and is venerated in Sparta (Paus. 3,15,8), Athens (IG II/III27175) and in the Amphiareum of Oropus (Paus. 1,34,3). He participates in the Epigoni campaign (Pind. Pyth. 8,40) and courts Helen (Apollod. 3,129). Later he fights with the Trojan army (Apollod. ep. 6,19; not in Homer), after the…


(277 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀμφιτρύων; Amphitrýōn, Amphitruo). Son of king Alcaeus of Tiryns and Astydameia, the daughter of Pelops (Apollod. 2,50; 55-67) or the granddaughter of Perseus Laonome (Eur. HF 2 f.; Paus. 8,14,2). In order to win  Alcmene, he has to avenge her father Electryon of Mycenae or her brothers, who fell in the battle with the plundering Teleboeans from Taphus. Or otherwise, A. accidentally kills Electryon (in a dispute) and flees with Alcmene to Thebes, where Creon exculpates him (Hes. f…


(125 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀκαρνάν). Eponym of Acarnania and of the Acarnanians, who were earlier called Curetes (Paus. 8,24,9). Son of the Argive  Alcmaeon and Achelous' daughter Callirhoe (Thuc. 2,102; Apollod. 3,92 f.). She gets Zeus to make her sons A. and Amphoterus into adults before the normal time. They were meant to get revenge on their father who was murdered at the instigation of his former father-in-law, Phegeus of Psophis, because of the necklace of Harmonia (Ov. Met. 9,412 ff.). After getting revenge, A. and his brother consecrate the necklace and the peplos of Harmonia to Delp…


(292 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (Δηίφοβος; Dēíphobos). Trojan prince and leader (Hom. Il. 12,94; 13,402-539), son of Priam and Hecuba (Apollod. 3,151). The tragedians have D. participating in the recognition of his once abandoned brother  Paris. D. threatens Paris, who flees to the altar and is there recognized by  Cassandra (Hyg. Fab. 91). D. is Hector's favourite brother, and Athena takes on his appearance when she entices Hector to his fatal single combat with Achilles (Hom. Il. 22,226ff.; 294ff.). With Paris …


(318 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome)
[German version] (Ἠώς; Ēṓs). Goddess of the dawn, probably of Indo-European origin, frequently equated with Hemera, the daylight. Her heavenly beauty (rosy-fingered, saffron-robed) is praised already by Homer (Il. 8,1). E. is the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia, sister of  Selene and  Helios (Hes. Theog. 371ff.). Every morning she rises with her chariot and horses from Oceanus (Hom. Il. 19,1; Od. 23,244; H. Hom. Veneris 5,227). By  Astraeus she is the mother of the winds and the stars (He…


(1,718 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Ley, Anne (Xanten)
(Διόσκουροι, Διοσκόρω; Dióskouroi, Dioskórō). [German version] I. Religion Divine twins, regarded as sons of Zeus; they appear repeatedly in Greek mythology. The most important (alongside the Theban D.  Amphion and  Zethus) were the Spartan ones, whose most ancient name probably was Tindarídai. In Attica, they were often invoked as Ἄνακτες ( Ánaktes: ‘masters’). Their individual names Castor (Κάστωρ; Latin Castor) and Polydeuces (Πολυδεύκης; Latin Pollux) as well as their characters in general are presumed to be of Indo-Germanic origin, and acad…


(470 words)

Author(s): Scheer, Tanja (Rome) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀντήνωρ; Antḗnōr). [German version] [1] Son of Hicetaon or Aisyetes Son of Hicetaon or Aesyetes, Trojan noble. His sons, together with  Aeneas, are leaders of the Trojans (Hom. Il. 2,822). A. is married to the Athena priestess Theano (Hom. Il. 6,299). Because of his justice and wisdom in council he is compared with Nestor; he advises that Helena should be returned (Hom. Il. 7,347 ff.) and observes the law of hospitality with respect to the Greek envoys, Odysseus and Menelaus (Hom. Il. 3,207). From Lycoph…
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