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Caesarius of Arles (Saint)

(300 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela
[German Version] (469/470, Chalon-sur-Saône – Aug 24, 542, Arles). At the age of 20, Caesarius entered the famous island monastery of Lérins in southern Gaul, where he was noted for his particularly ascetic life. Sent to Arles to recover his health, which had suffered from his asceticism, he was ordained priest by Aeonius, the bishop of Arles, made abbot of the monastery of Trinquetaille on an island in the Rhone, and designated as Aeonius's successor. For 40 yea…

Gaudentius of Brescia

(167 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela
[German Version] Gaudentius of Brescia, bishop of Brescia (from before 397 until after 406). Chosen to succeed bishop Philastrius during a trip to the East, Gaudentius assumed this office only under pressure from his friend Ambrose of Milan and worked there for 14 years. In 405, along with two other bishops, he was sent on an official mission to Constantinople to intervene, albeit unsuccessfully, for John Chrysostom. Rufinus (Rufinus, Tyrannius) dedicated his translation of the Pseudo-Clementine Recognitiones to Gaudentius. At the wish of the imperial official Benvolus,…

Zeno of Verona (Saint)

(151 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela
[German Version] (4th cent. ce). The earliest mention of the patron saint of Verona (church of San Zeno Maggiore), according to local tradition its eighth bishop, is in a letter of uncertain date from Ambrose, bishop of Milan, to Zeno’s successor Syagrius ( Ep. 56[=5].1). There are no further references to his life. His polemic against Arianism (Arius) and paganism suggest a floruit in the second half of the 4th century. An African background deduced from his language and veneration of a Mauritanian saint is disputed. A collection of ser…

Anianus of Celeda

(139 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela
[German Version] (1st half of 5th cent.; place uncertain) Anianus defended Pelagius at the Synod of Diosopolis (415) and wrote (before 419) a no longer extant polemic against Jerome (cf. Jer. Ep. 143, 2 [to Augustine and Alypius]: Pseudodiaconus celedensis). He is to be identified with the only 5th-century translator of John Chrysostom mentioned by name, although the extent of his contribution (presumably large) to the Latin Chrysostomica remains unclear, in the absence of a critical edition; besides the 25 Homiliae in Matthaeum (translated 419/420) and the 7 Homiliae de laudibus S…

Paulinus of Milan

(192 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela
[German Version] (4th/5th cent.). Paulinus was a deacon and secretary of Ambrose before he went to North Africa as administrator of church property. There he wrote a Vita Sancti Ambrosi in 422 (or earlier, in 412/413) at the suggestion of Augustine, taking as his model the lives of the famous monks Anthony, Paul, and Martin. In line with hagiographical conventions, he gave much space to miraculous episodes, but as an eye-witness at least of Ambrose’s last years, and supported by documents from the Milan archive and reports …

Ennodius, Magnus Felix

(171 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela
[German Version] (473/474, Arles – 521, Pavia). Born into a prominent household in Arles and raised in Pavia, Ennodius began serving the bishop of Milan, Laurentius, after his ordination to the diaconate c. 496. As bishop of Pavia from 513, he twice led a papal delegation to Constantinople (515 and 517) to seek a reconciliation in the so-called Acacian Schism (Acacius of Constantinople), though without …

Praedestinatus, Liber

(154 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela
[German Version] (5th cent.). This was the title given to an anonymous work by its first editor, J. Sirmond, in 1643. The work, in three books, was written in Rome during the pontificate of Sixtus III (432–440). The first book is a catalogue of 90 heresies, essentially based on Augustine of Hippo’s De haeresibus, with a few added groups like the Tertullianists and Nestorians (Syria), and ending with the Predestinarians. The second, falsely ascribed to Augustine, presents a radical doctrine of predestination by one of the adherents of this theology…

Gervasius and Protasius, Saints

(188 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela
[German Version] (feast day Jun 19). The relics of the martyrs Gervasius and Protasius were discovered by Bishop Ambrose of Milan in the basilica of the martyrs Felix and Nabor in Milan through a vision on Jun 17, 386. On Jun 19 he had them brought to the Basilica Ambrosiana (modern San Ambrogio) and interred under the high altar, where they can still be seen alongside the relics of Ambrose himself. The circumstances of their discovery and the miraculous healings that accompanied their translation are described by Ambrose in the last of his collected letters ( Epist. 77) and his hymn devot…


(1,389 words)

Author(s): Simons, Roswitha (Düsseldorf) | Lehnardt, Andreas | Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten (Frankfurt/Main) | Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Leppin, Hartmut (Hannover)
[German version] I. Greek (Σύμμαχος/ Sýmmachos). [German version] [I 1] Author of a commentary on Aristophanes, 1st half of the 2nd cent. No later than the first half of the 2nd cent. AD (citation in Herodian. 2,945-946 Lentz); author of a commentary on Aristophanes [3], frequently used in Late Antiquity and Byzantine scholia literature ( subscriptio Schol. Aristoph. Av.; Nub.; Pax). It remains unclear whether S. also commented on comedies which do not survive [2. 1138 f.]. Of the 41 (factual) explanations attributed to S. by name in the Aristophane…


(2,481 words)

Author(s): Görgemanns, Herwig (Heidelberg) | Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna)
[German version] A. Term, Terminology, Origins A letter is a written message to an absent recipient. The Greek epistolḗ (ἐπιστολή) is the verbal noun for ἐπιστέλλειν; epistéllein, ‘to give a message (to a messenger)’ or ‘to send a written or oral message (to s.o.)’; epistolḗ means ‘a sent message’, which in earlier times could also include an oral message. Synonyms: grámmata (γράμματα), literally ‘piece of writing’, Lat. epistula, litterae. Wherever script was developed, writing letters was one of its first applications. For that reason, communication by writing…


(713 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Schumacher, Leonhard
[German version] [1] T., M. Tullius Cicero's secretary, 1st cent. BC Born in the house of Cicero's (= Cic.) grandfather in Arpinum as son of a prisoner of war, therefore as a slave, in 103 BC (according to [3] in 80 BC). T. was made a freedman by his master Cic., who was not much older than he, only in 53 (cf. Cic. Fam. 16,16,1). He was a valuable help to his master in all possible ways, as the latter repeatedly emphasized (for instance, in Cic. Fam. 16,4,3 in 50 BC). T. accompanied Cic. to Cilicia in 51, …


(300 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela (Vienna) | Portmann, Werner (Berlin)
[German version] [1] Iulius T. Tutor of princes, teacher of rhetoric, late 2nd cent. Active probably in the late 2nd cent. AD as a tutor of princes and later in Vesontio (modern Besançon) and Lugdunum (modern Lyon) as a teacher of rhetoric, T. was the author of numerous (non-surviving) works. He was famous for his prose ' Letters of Famous Women' written on the model of Ovidius' Heroides (on the choice of the letters of Cicero as a stylistic model: Sid. Apoll. Epist. 1,1,2). Furthermore, there is evidence of a collection of themata from Vergil for teaching rhetoric, a prose paraphrase …


(2,045 words)

Author(s): Görgemanns, Herwig (Heidelberg) | Zelzer, Michaela (Wien)
[English version] A. Begriff, Terminologie, Ursprünge Ein Brief ist eine schriftliche Mitteilung an einen Abwesenden. Griech. epistolḗ (ἐπιστολή) ist Verbalsubstantiv zu ἐπιστέλλειν, “(einem Boten) eine Mitteilung auftragen” oder “(jemandem) eine Mitteilung (mündlich oder schriftlich) übersenden”; epistolḗ bedeutet “übersandte Mitteilung”, in älterer Zeit auch eine mündliche. Synonym: grámmata (γράμματα), eigentlich “Schriftstück”, im Lat. epistula, litterae. Überall, wo eine Schrift erfunden wurde, war der Brief eine ihrer ersten Verwendungsweise…


(621 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela | Schumacher, Leonhard
[English version] [1] T., M. Tullius Sekretär des Cicero, 1. Jh. v. Chr. In Ciceros (= Cic.) großväterlichem Haus in Arpinum als Sohn eines Kriegsgefangenen und somit als Sklave um 103 v. Chr. geb. (nach [3] um 80 v. Chr.), erlangte T. von seinem nur wenige Jahre älteren Lehrmeister Cic. erst im J. 53 die Freilassung (vgl. Cic. fam. 16,16,1). Seinem Herrn leistete er in vielfältigster Weise wertvolle Hilfe, wie dieser mehrfach betont (etwa in Cic. fam. 16,4,3 um 50 v. Chr.). Er begleitete Cic. im J. 51 nach …


(265 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela | Portmann, Werner
[English version] [1] Iulius T. Prinzenerzieher, Rhetoriklehrer, spätes 2. Jh. Der wohl im späten 2. Jh. n. Chr. als Prinzenerzieher und später in Vesontio (h. Besançon) und Lugdunum (h. Lyon) als Rhet.-Lehrer tätige T. war Verf. zahlreicher (nicht erh.) Schriften. Berühmt war er wegen seiner nach dem Vorbild der Heroides des Ovidius in Prosa verfaßten ‘Briefe berühmter Frauen (zur Wahl der Briefe Ciceros als stilistisches Vorbild: Sidon. epist. 1,1,2). Bezeugt sind weiterhin eine Zusammenstellung von themata aus Vergil für den Rhet.-Unterricht, eine Prosaparaphrase…


(900 words)

Author(s): Groß-Albenhausen, Kirsten | Zelzer, Michaela | Leppin, Hartmut
Die Symmachi gehörten zu den angesehensten röm. Senatorenfamilien des 4. und beginnenden 5. Jh. n. Chr., mit vielen bedeutenden senatorischen Familien befreundet oder verschwägert. Sie bekleideten unter christl. Kaisern trotz ihres Festhaltens an der altröm. Rel. (für die der bekannteste Vertreter der Familie, S. [4], auch öffentlich eintrat) höchste Staatsämter. [English version] [1] L. Aurelius Avianius S. Phosphorius Pontifex maior, quindecimvir sacris faciundis, praef. annonae vor 350 n. Chr., vicarius urbis um 360, 361 Mitglied der Senatsgesandtschaft an …

Praedestinatus, Liber

(141 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela
[English Version] (5.Jh.). Mit diesem Titel wird seit dem Ersteditor J. Sirmond (1643) ein anonym überliefertes, unter dem Pontifikat Sixtus' III. (432–440) in Rom entstandenes Werk in drei Büchern bez. Das erste enthält einen Katalog von 90 Häresien, der im wesentlichen auf Augustins »De haeresibus« beruht (mit einigen Erweiterungen wie über die Tertullianisten und Nestorianer [Syrien]) und mit den Prädestinatianern endet. Das zweite bietet eine radikale Prädestinationslehre eines Anhängers diese…


(171 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela
[English Version] von Mailand (4./5.Jh.). Als Verwalter Mailänder Kirchenguts kam der Diakon und ehemalige Sekretär des Ambrosius nach Nordafrika, wo er auf Anregung Augustins 422 (oder schon 412/413) nach dem Vorbild der Viten der berühmten Mönche Antonius, Paulus und Martin eine »Vita S. Ambrosi« vf. Dem hagiographischen Genus verpflichtet räumte er zwar wunderbaren Episoden großen Raum ein, jedoch zeichnete er als Augenzeuge zumindest der letzten Jahre, gestützt auf Dokumente des Mailänder Archi…


(138 words)

Author(s): Zelzer, Michaela
[English Version] von Verona (4.Jh. n.Chr.). Der Schutzpatron dieser Stadt (Kirche S. Zeno Maggiore), nach lokaler Tradition ihr achter Bischof, ist erstmals erwähnt in einem nicht datierbaren Brief des Mailänder Bf. Ambrosius an Z.s Nachfolger Syagrius (ep.56 [= 5],1). Weitere Angaben zu seinem Leben gibt es nicht; seine Polemik gegen Arianismus (Arius) und Heidentum sprechen für ein Wirken in der 2. Hälfte des 4.Jh. Die aus seiner Sprache und der Verehrung eines mauretanischen Heiligen erschlosse…