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Cymodoce

(59 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Κυμοδόκη; Kymodóke, Cymodoce, ‘wave-receiver’).  Nereid who calms the wind and waves, in Hes. Theog. 252f., Hom. Il. 18,39, Verg. Aen. 5,826 (accordingly Verg. G. 4,338) and 10,225 ( Cymodocea: Aeneas's ship turned into a nymph), Hyg. Fab. praef. 8, Stat. Silv. 2,2,20. Also represented on vases [1]. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 N. Icard-Gianolio, s.v. Kymodoke, LIMC 6.1, 163f.

Halitherses

(125 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Ἁλιθέρσης; Halithérsēs), ‘having courage on the sea’ [1; 2]. [German version] [1] Son of Ancaeus [2] and Samia Son of  Ancaeus [2] and Samia (Asius EpGF fr. 7; PEG I). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Soothsayer and companion of Odysseus Soothsayer in the Odyssey, son of Mastor (2,157f.), old friend of Odysseus and Telemachus (2,253; 17,68). Divining a bird sign in light of an earlier prophesy, he warns the suitors, in vain, of the return of Odysseus (2,161ff.). After the suitors are murdered, he advises against a civil war (24,451ff.) [3; 4]. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groni…

Opheltes

(251 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Ὀφέλτης/ Ophéltēs). Son of king Lycurgus [3] of Nemea and of Eurydice. He was killed as a child by a snake, when, despite an oracle's warning, his nurse, the Lemnian Hypsipyle (Lemnian women), left him unguarded on the ground to show the Seven against Thebes a spring. The Seven kill the snake, rescue the nurse from the death penalty and bury O. The seer Amphiaraus, who regards the misfortune as a bad omen for the war campaign, renames O. Archemorus ('beginning of death'). The fune…

Proteus

(270 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Πρωτεύς/ Prōteús). Sea god, Poseidon's herdsman of seals, sometimes also his son. P. possesses the characteristics  typical of sea gods: old age ( hálios gérōn : Hom. Od. 4,349), the gift of prophecy, and the ability to transform (cf. Heracles' wrestling matches with Nereus and Triton, or that of Peleus with Thetis). In Hom. Od. 4,349-570, P. is taking a midday rest among the seals on the Egyptian island of Pharos; with the help of P.' daughter Eidothea, Menelaus [1] overcomes the god…

Hyperborei

(591 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι; Hyperbóre(i)oi). The Hyperboreans, a mythical people imagined as living at the edge of the world (Pind. Isthm. 6,23) ‘beyond the North Wind (Boreas)’ (thus ancient etymology, which is considered uncertain today [1]). The H. share with other marginal peoples (such as the Ethiopians, their southern counterpart), traits of the ideal concept of a paradisical existence in proximity to the gods, in a country favoured by climate [2; 3; 4]. By their relation to  Apollo, the…

Hekaerge

(344 words)

Author(s): Baudy, Gerhard (Constance) | Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Ἑκαέργη). [German version] [1] Epithet of Artemis Epithet of  Artemis (Clem. Al. Strom. 5,8,48,4f.; EpGr 460,6). Baudy, Gerhard (Constance) [German version] [2] Maiden active in the cult of Artemis A mythical maiden named Aspalis Ameilete H., from the city of Melite in Thessaly, active in the cult of  Artemis. Because she hanged herself in order to escape being raped by the tyrant Tartarus, the virgins made an annual sacrifice to her by hanging a young goat (Nikander in Antoninus Liberalis 13). Baudy, Gerhard (Constance) [German version] [3] Kore from the island of Ceos A kore from the …

Halosydne

(127 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Ἁλοσύδνη; Halosýdnē). [German version] [1] Sea goddess Name of the sea or a sea goddess ( Amphitrite, according to schol. ad loc.) in Hom. Od. 4,404, where the seals appear as the ‘offspring of H.’ Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Epithet of Thetis The epithet of  Thetis (Hom. Il. 20,207) and the  Nereids as a whole (Apoll. Rhod. 4,1599). The etymology was disputed in antiquity (‘daughter of the sea’, among other meanings; cf. Hsch. s.v. ὕδναι); today, H. is defined as ‘sea-wave’ (with gen. ἅλός and n-stem from ὕδωρ) [1; 2; 3]. The reference may be as early as …

Theodamas

(290 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Θειοδάμας/ Theiodámas; Lat. Theodamas, Thiodamas). King of the Dryopes, who were driven from their homeland by Heracles [1]; father of Hylas. A connexion is made in Hellenistic literature between T. and the resettlement of the brigand Dryopes in the Peloponnese (Bacchyl. Paean 4; Hdt. 8,43; 8,47; Diod. Sic. 4,37) - perhaps following Hesiod's Kḗykos gámos ('the wedding of Ceyx', Hes. fr. 263-269; [1]): in Apollonius Rhodius (1,1211-1219) as a pretext for war Heracles provokes a conflict over the ploughing bull of T., a poor farmer, w…

Glauconome

(61 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Γλαυκονόμη; Glaukonómē).  Nereid at Hes. Theog. 256 and Apollod. 1,11. Her name means ‘she who lives/rules in the glossy (γλαυκός; cf.  Glauce) sea’ [1]. For the word formation, cf. the names Amphinome: ‘she who rules widely’ and Eurynome: ‘she who rules for miles around’ (Hom. Il. 18,44; 398f.). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 G. Herzog-Hauser, s.v. Nereiden, RE 17, 15.

Loxo

(53 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Λοξώ; Loxṓ). Hyperborean woman ( Hyperborei); mentioned in Callim. H. 4,292 as the third daughter of Boreas, aside from Upis ( Opis) and Hecaerge [4], who brought gifts to Delos and are buried there (accordingly Nonnus, Dion. 5,489; 48,334). The name connects her with Apollo Loxias. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)

Thoosa

(88 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Θόωσα, 'who rushes off'). [German version] [1] Sea Nymph Sea nymph, daughter of  Phorcys [1], by Poseidon mother of the Cyclops Polyphemus (Hom. Od. 1,71-73, on which all later mentions depend: Nonn. Dion. 39,293; Apollod. Epit. 7,4; Porph. De antro Nympharum 35; Hesych. s. v. T.; in Theocr. 11,26 not mentioned by name). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Daughter of Poseidon Daughter of Poseidon, according to a version of the myth mother by Apollo of the singer Linus (Certamen Homeri et Hesiodi 46). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)

Thanatos

(298 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Θάνατος/ Thánatos). Personification of death in Greek art and mythology, of practically no cultic significance. T. is the son of Nyx (night) and the twin brother of Hypnos (Sleep, cf. Somnus; Hes. Theog. 211f.; 756f.; Hom. Il. 14,231) with whom he transported the body of the dead Sarpedon [1] from Troy to Lycia (Hom. Il. 16,453-457; 16,671-683). This scene, a favourite on Attic vases from the late 6th cent. BC on, was adopted into every-day life in that T. and Hypnos function as e…

Neso

(68 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Νησώ/ Nēsṓ). [German version] [1] Nereid Nereid (Hes. Theog. 261). For the name cf. Nesaea. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) [German version] [2] Daughter of the Trojan king Teukros Daughter of the Trojan king Teucer, sister of Batieia, and (like her sister) wife of Dardanus [1] and mother of the Marpessian Sibyl (Lycoph. 1465 with schol.; Arr. FGrH 156 F 95; Eust. ad Hom. Il. 2,814). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)

Phorcys

(228 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Käppel, Lutz (Kiel)
(Φόρκυς/ Phórkys, Latin Phorcus, Phorcys, Phorcyn). [German version] [1] Sea god Sea god, son of Pontus and Gaia, brother of Nereus (Hes. Theog. 237; in Orph. Fr. 16 son of Oceanus and Tethys, in Orph. Fr. 114 Titan); with his sister Ceto he fathered monsters (Phorcydes) such as the Graeae, Gorgons (Gorgo [1]), Echidna and the snake Ladon [1] (Hes. Theog. 270-303; 333-336); according to others he was also the father of the Sirens (Soph. fr. 861 TrGF), the Hesperides (schol. Apoll. Rhod. 4,1399d), Scylla (Apoll. Rhod. 4,828f. with schol.) and Thoosa (Hom. Od. 1,71f.). In the Odyssey, where a…

Cercyon

(193 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
(Κερκυών; Kerkyṓn). [German version] [1] Son of Poseidon In Attic legend, a fiend living in Eleusis, son of Poseidon (Paus. 1,14,3; depicted differently in Hyg. Fab. 38, Apollod. epit. 1,3), accustomed to overpowering passers-by in a deadly wrestling game until defeated by  Theseus (Plut. Thes. 11; Paus. 1,39,3). The battle against C. is a fixed component of the cycle of Theseus' deeds, depicted pictorially from the late 6th cent. BC [1], and it is also attested to in literature since Aeschylus' satyr p…

Leucothoe

(70 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Λευκοθόη; Leucothóe). Daughter of the Persian king Orchamus and of Eurynome. She is raped by Sol, an act which his jealous mistress Clytia reveals to L.'s father, who then buries her alive. The grieving god transforms her into an incense tree (Ov. Met. 4,190-255). Occasionally confused with Leucothea. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography L. C. Curran, Rape and Rape Victims in the Metamorphoses, in: Arethusa 11, 1978, 213-241.

Coroebus

(410 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(Κόροιβος; Kóroibos). [German version] [1] Hero founder of Tripodiscus in the Megaris Hero founder of Tripodiscus in the Megaris. The legend is told in Callim. Fr. 26-31 in connection with an Argive aition according to the local historians Agias and Dercylus (FGrH 305 F 8 to) [1]:  Linus, the son of Apollo and  Psamathe, is torn apart by dogs, and Psamathe is killed by her father  Crotopus. As a punishment Apollo sends a child-murdering demon, the Poineḗ or   Ker , to Argus. When the brave C. kills the monster, the god sends a further plague, whereupon…

Prylis

(186 words)

Author(s): Johannsen, Nina (Kiel) | Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] [1] Mythical seer from Lesbos (Πρύλις; Prýlis). Mythical seer from Lesbos, apostrophized in Lycoph. 219-223. P. is son of the nymph Issa and Hermes (called Kádmos/Cadmus, in the Boeotian variant of the name, in line 219) and through Hermes, great-grandson of Atlas [2]. Prompted by presents from Palamedes [1], P. reveals to the Greeks in an early stage how to capture Troy, advising them to build the wooden horse. He is referred to as one who "helped to destroy his own kindred" in line 222 because the Troja…

Nesaea

(65 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Νησαίη, -α/ Nēsaíē, -a; Lat. Nesaee, -a, also Nisaee: Verg. Aen. 5,826 ‘(N. from the island ’). One of the most frequently mentioned Nereids (Hes. Theog. 249; Hom. Il. 18,40; Hyg. Fab. praef. 8; Apollod. 1,12; Verg. Aen. 5,826; Prop. 2,26,16). Name found on the lid of an Attic red-figured lekanis [1]. Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen) Bibliography 1 N. Icard-Gianolio, s.v. Nesaea, LIMC 6.1, 838.

Molorchus

(111 words)

Author(s): Ambühl, Annemarie (Groningen)
[German version] (Μόλορχος/ Mólorchos, Μόλορκος/ Mólorkos: reconstructed in its original form in [1]). Poor elderly farmer from Cleonae, host to Heracles [1] before and after his battle against the Nemeic lion; inventor of mousetraps. Famous because of Callimachus' Victoria Berenices (SH 254-268C) at the beginning of the 3rd book of the Aítia, to which later mentions of M. as an examplar of hospitality refer (Verg. G. 3,19; Ps.-Tib. 4,1,12f.; Stat. Theb. 4,159ff.; Nonnus, Dion. 17,52ff.; versions of the myth in Probus on Verg. G. 3,19; Apollod. 2,74f.). Ambühl, Annemarie (Groninge…
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