[German version] Hebrew measure of volume for liquids; 1/4 kábos; translated by LXX as kotýlē , rendered in the Vulgate as sextarius . The content differed depending on time and place, and the modern estimates vary from 0.64 l to 0.29 l. Chantraine, Heinrich (Mannheim) Bibliography H. Chantraine, s.v. L., RE 9A, 2123f.
[German version] (ὀξύβαφον/ oxýbaphon, Latin acetabulum , literally: “vinegar jar for dipping”); refers especially to a measure of volume for liquids of 1/4 kotyle or 11/2 cyathus . The Attic oxybaphon measured 0,068 l [1. 2], that of the physicians (since Nero) 0,051 l . Chantraine, Heinrich (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 102ff. 2 H. Nissen, Griechische und römische Metrologie, in: Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 1, 21892, 843f., 867 3 H. Chantraine, s.v. ξέστης, RE 9A, 2116ff. 4 M.Lang, M. Crosby, W…
[German version] (ὄργυια/ órgyia; 'fathom'). Span between the outstretched arms, largest length measurement derived from the human body. An órgyia contained 4 cubits ( pêchys ), 6 feet ( pus ) and was 1/100 of a stadion. The norm fluctuates, depending on the length of the foot or cubit, between 1.78 and 2.10 m. Chantraine, Heinrich (Mannheim) Bibliography F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 28ff., 697 H. Nissen, Griechische und römische Metrologie, in: Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 1, 21892, 836f., 865.
[German version]  Field measurement Iugum (‘yoke’), according to Varro Rust. 1,10,1, was the name of a field measurement in Hispania ulterior equal to the value of the iugerum . From the time of Diocletian onwards, the iugum consisted of a virgate of varying size, according to the quality of the land. In Syria, therefore, one iugum comprised 5 iugera of vineyard, 20, 40, 60 iugera of agricultural land of declining yield or 220 resp. 450 perticae (at 100 square feet each) of oil-producing plantings (FIRA 2,795f.). Other measurements and classes are found in Palestine…
[German version] I. Ancient Near East Various concepts of square measures (SM) are found (even simultaneously) in Mesopotamia. The oldest, attested from the late 4th millennium BC, was based on the length measurements of squares or rectangles, and was thus suited to the needs of surveying fields: 1 rod × 1 rod (with 1 rod = 6 m) = 1 rod square ('bed') (36 m2). The fundamental unit for fields was 1 'field' or 'dyke' (0.36 ha). In the 1st millennium, the Babylonian system (for smaller areas) was based on a rectangle with one fixed side of 1 'reed' (= 7 cubits) and a…