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Melas

(695 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Funke, Peter (Münster) | Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | von Bredow, Iris (Bietigheim-Bissingen) | Et al.
(Μέλας/ Mélas). [German version] [1] Brother of Oeneus Son of Porthaon (Portheus) and Euryte in Calydon [3], brother of Oeneus, Agrius [1], Alcathous [2], Leucopeus and Sterope (cf. Hom. Il. 14,115ff.; Apollod. 1,63). M.'s eight sons were killed by Tydeus for pursuing their uncle Oeneus (Apollod. 1,76 = Alcmaeonis fr. 4 EpGF). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Phrixus and Chalciope Son of Phrixus and Chalciope [2], the daughter of Aeetes, brother of Argus [I 2], Phrontis and Cytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83). In the older myth M., like Argus, prob…

Calais and Zetes

(355 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Κάλαϊς, Ζήτης; Kálaïs, Zḗtēs). Boreads, wind gods, the winged sons of  Boreas and  Oreithyia, brothers of Cleopatra and Chione [1]. Sent by their father from Thrace (Pind. Pyth. 4.179-183), they become members of the  Argonauts (Apollod. 1.111; 3.199; Apoll. Rhod. 1.211-223; Ov. Met. 6.712-721). In Salmydessus they free the blind prophet  Phineus, who is married to Cleopatra, from the  Harpies. In the fight, C. and Z. were initially supposed to die, like the Harpies (Apollod. 1.122; 3.199 [1. 2291; 2. 104ff.]). However, divine intervention rescues both la…

Argonauts

(1,398 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Ἀργοναῦται; Argonaûtai). [German version] A. Participants Argonauts is the general descriptive term for the group of heroes (also called Minyae), mainly belonging to the pre-Trojan generation, who were sent by Pelias under Jason's leadership on the Argo to fetch the fleece of the ram on which Phrixus and Helle had once fled. Even the most ancient sources identify the Golden Fleece with the Argonauts myth, although originally the two groups of myths probably had nothing done with each other. Altogethe…

Aea

(294 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Αἶα). Mythical island of exploration in the Oceanus (in the land of the Aethiopeans: Mimn. fr. 5 Poetae Elegiaci Gentili/Prato), in which Helios has a thalamos for his rays, originally the goal of Jason (Mimn. fr. 10). In A. (etymologically, ‘Earth, Land’ [1. 22, 39]) is the city of Aeetes, the ‘husband of A.’ (Mimn. fr. 10, cf. Pherecyd. fr. 105). Knowledge that the Pontus is an inland lake resulted in A. being shifted to the river (Phasis) connecting it with the sea (Hes. fr. 2…

Chalciope

(157 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Χαλκιόπη; Chalkiópē). [German version] [1] Daughter of Chalcodon Daughter of Chalcodon (king of the Abantes: Hom. Il. 2,541) or of Rhexenor; second wife of Aegeus before Medea (Apollod. 3,207; Schol. Eur. Med. 673). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Sister of Medea Daughter of Aeetes and Idyia; sister of Medea, wife of Phrixus, mother of Argos, Mela, Phrontis and Kytis(s)orus (Apollod. 1,83; Herodor FGrH F 39; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1148ff.); in Pherecydes (FGrH F 25) she is called Euenia (also C. and Iophossa; cf. Hes. fr. 255 M-W; Ac…

Cretheus

(124 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Κρηθεύς, as ke-re-te-u already Mycenaean). The son of  Aeolus [1] and Enarete (Apollod. 1,51), founder and ruler of  Iolcus. After the death of his first wife  Sidero, he married his ward Tyro, the daughter of his brother  Salmoneus and the mother of Pelias and  Neleus with Poseidon, with whom he begat  Aeson [1], Phere and  Amythaon (Hom. Od. 11,235ff.; Hes. fr. 30,29ff.; Apollod. 1,90ff.; 96); Val. Fl. 5,476ff. also makes  Athamas a son of C.; Pind. Nem. 5,26 speaks of a daughter…

Acastus

(139 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἄκαστος). Son of Pelias and Anaxibia (cf. Apollod. 1,95), probably an Argonaut from the beginning (Apollod. 1,112). A. institutes games to commemorate his dead father and expels Jason and Medea from Iolcus (Apollod. 1,144), of which he becomes king (Apollod. 3,164; cf. Diod. 4,53,1; Hyg. Fab. 25,5). Absolves Peleus of the murder which Astydameia, wife of A. (in Pind. this is Hippolyte) is vainly trying to bring about, then slanders him to A.; A. leaves Peleus unarmed in Pelion, w…

Iason

(2,023 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Cobet, Justus (Essen) | Wandrey, Irina (Berlin) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἰάσων; lásōn). [German version] [1] Leader of the Argonauts Thessalian hero from  Iolcus, leader of the  Argonauts, participant in the Calydonian Hunt (Apollod. 1,68), son of  Aeson [1] and Polymela (Hes. Cat. 38-40; Apollod. 1,107) or  Alcimede (Pherecydes 3 F 104 FGrH; Apoll. Rhod. 1,47); brother of  Promachus (Apollod. 1,143); with  Hypsipyle, he fathered  Euneus [1] (Hom. Il. 7,468) and Nebrophonos (Apollod. 1,115), and with  Medea, he fathered Medeus (Hes. Theog. 1001),  Mermerus [3] and Pheres (Apollod. 1,146). Having been raised by  Chiron (Hes. Cat. 40), I. lives…

Eurynome

(186 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Εὐρυνόμη; Eurynómē). Daughter of Oceanus; with Thetis she hid  Hephaestus for nine years after he had been expelled from Olympus by Hera (Hom. Il. 18,398ff.). In Hes. (Theog. 358), E. comes next to Metis in the catalogue of the  Oceanids (337; Apollod. 1,8 mother Tethys), next to Metis and Themis in the catalogue of the wives of Zeus as mother of the  Charites (907ff.; Apollod. 1,13), as which Call. (fr. 6 Pf.) calls her Τιτηνιάς ( Titēniás) (participant in the battle with the giants on the Pergamum Altar: inscr. from Pergamum 110). Like the Song of Orph…

Minyas

(384 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier) | Latacz, Joachim (Basle)
[German version] [1] Grandson of Zeus (Μινύας; Minýas). M.' genealogy is very intricate [1. 129ff.; 2. 195ff.; 3]: grandson of Zeus, son or grandson of Poseidon, son of Ares or Aleus [1], grandson, great-(great-) grandson of Aeolus [1], father, son or brother of Orchomenus, father of Clymene [4], Persephone and the Minyades (the female members of the tribe of Minyans reduced to three [2. 204f.]). This lack of a fixed position in genealogy and of his own myths ([4. 133]; Apollod. 3,105 only mentions M. …

Circe

(787 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Κίρκη, Kírkē, Lat. Circe, Circa). Immortal (Hom. Od. 12,302) goddess, with the gift of language (ibid. 10,136) and a nymph (ibid. 10,543), daughter of Helios and of the  Oceanid Perse(is), sister of  Aeetes (ibid. 10,135ff.; Hes. Theog. 956f.; Apollod. 1,83), of  Perses (Apollod. 1,147) and  Pasiphae (Apollod. 3,7), by Odysseus, she is the mother of  Agrius and Latinus (Hes. Theog. 1011ff.) as well as  Cassiphone (Lycoph. 808 with schol.). According to Diodorus (4,45,3ff.), C. is …

Tityus

(239 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τιτυός/ Tityós). Son of Zeus and Elara, the daughter of Orchomenus. In fear of Hera, Zeus conceals the pregnant Elara under the earth, which then 'gives birth' to T., with the result that he, because of his gigantic size, could also be called 'Earth-son' (Hom. Od. 7,324; 11,576), i.e. Gēgenḗs (cf. Gēgeneís ; Pherekydes FGrH 3 F 55), or Giant [1. 184 f.]. Since T. intends to assault Leto when she goes through Panopeus to Pytho (= Delphi [2. 302]), he is shot dead by Artemis (Pind. P. 4,90-92) and Apollo (Apoll. Rhod. 1,759-762). In Hades, where he is one …

Planctae

(178 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Πλαγκταί sc. πέτραι/ Planktaí sc. pétrai, 'wandering rocks' or, from the pounding of the breakers, 'clashing rocks'). Designation (Hom. Od. 12,61) for mythical rocks made dangerous due to their smoothness, fire and surging waves; encountered by the Argonauts on their return journey; near the monsters Scylla and Charybdis. The Argo, assisted by Hera, is the only ship to have succeeded in navigating its way past the P. (Hom. Od. 12,59ff.; Apollod. 1,136; Apoll. Rhod. 4,924ff.); on Circe…

Euphemus

(310 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Εὔφημος; Eúphēmos). In older myth, the son of Poseidon and of the Boeotian Mecionice of Hyrie (Hes. fr. 253 M.-W.); husband of the sister of Hercules, Laonome, with the ability to walk on water (probably all in Hes. fr. 253), Argonaut (Apollod. 1,112), chariot victor at the funeral games for Pelias (Cypselus chest, Paus. 5,17,9), (illegitimate) progenitor of the Battiads whom he sired with an (anon.) Lemnian woman, i.e. first ancestor of the kings of Cyrene (cf. Βάττος ... Εὐφημίδ…

Eurypylus

(392 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Εὐρύπυλος; Eurýpylos). [German version] [1] Suitor to Helen Son of Euaimon; a Thessalian and suitor to Helen (Apollod. 3,131), a warrior at Troy: leader of 40 ships (Hom. Il. 2,734ff.); wounded by Paris (11,575ff.), healed by Patroclus (11,809ff; 15,390ff.); stranded in Libya on the journey home (Lycoph. Al. 901f. with schol.). Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Son of Telephus, the son of Heracles Son of  Telephus son of Heracles; king of the Mysians; sent to the aid of Troy (Acusilaus FGrH F 40) by his mother  Astyoche, sister of Priam (Apollod. 3,…

Paraebius

(103 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Παραίβιος; Paraíbios). Mythical slave or owner of a farm, whose story was told to the Argonautsby Phineus [1], thereby proving his visionary powers (Apoll. Rhod. 2,456ff. with scholia): P.' father had felled a tree, in spite of the pleas of the hamadryad who lived in it, thus bringing ill fortune on himself and his descendants. Phineus recognized the cause and placated the nymph with an altar, whereupon she became Phineus' friend and provider [1. 222f. n. 3]. On P. in art, see [2]. Dräger, Paul (Trier) Bibliography 1 U. von Wilamowitz-Moellendorff, Hellenistische D…

Ananke

(405 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Ἀνάγκη; Anánkē). The word attested in Homer as an abstract term (‘compulsion’) develops significance as a philosophical term from the pre-Socratics onwards [1. 5 ff.; 2. 147 ff.; 3. 103 ff.]: Thales (A 1, DK 71, 12 f.) preserves the oldest Greek speculation, ‘to bring to expression with ananke, i.e. natural necessity, the power which is active mechanically behind all phenomena and which compels the divine primal principle to appear in its multitudinous forms’ [1. 6]; ananke is frequently equated with εἱμαρμένη ( heimarménē) (e.g. Heraclid. A 5). The pe…

Phrontis

(175 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
(Φρόντις; Phróntis). [German version] [1] Son of Phrixus and Chalkiope, daughter of Aietes Son of Phrixus and Aeetes' daughter Chalciope [2], brother of Argos [I 2], Melas [2] and Cytissorus (Hes. Cat. 255; Apollod. 1,83). On Phrixus’ death the sons return to Hellas (Apollod. 1,120; Apoll. Rhod. 2,1141ff.) or remain in Colchis (Val. Fl. 5,460ff.). Only in Apoll. Rhod. 4,70ff. does Ph. play a role, when Medea calls to him as the youngest of Phrixus’ sons to help her escape and he responds. Dräger, Paul (Trier) [German version] [2] Helmsman of Menelaus Son of Onetor, helmsman of Menelau…

Tyro

(288 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Τυρώ; Tyrṓ). The daughter of Salmoneus and Alcidice, famed for her very white skin (from tyrós, cheese) and her magnificent head of curls (cf. Hom. Od. 2,119 f.; Hes. Cat. 30,25; Pind. Pyth. 4,136, cf 109; Soph. fr. 648; Diod. Sic. 6 fr. 6,5; 7,2). After her parents were killed by Zeus, T. who had opposed her father's sacrilege, is taken to Thessalia to her uncle Cretheus and his wife Sidero. Here Poseidon, assuming the shape of the river god Enipeus, fathers her twins Neleus [1] and Pelias; At…

Minyades

(412 words)

Author(s): Dräger, Paul (Trier)
[German version] (Μινυάδες, Latin also Minyeïades/singular Minyeïas or Minyeïdes/singular Minyeïs). The three daughters of Minyas, whose names were Leucippe (Leuconoë), Arsippe (Arsinoë [I 2]) and Alcathoë [1] (Alcithoë). Their myth, which is missing in Apollodorus, is found with variants in Ov. Met. 4,1ff., 389ff., Plut. Mor. 299e-300a (Qu. Gr. 38), Antoninus Liberalis 10 and Ael. VH 3,42. According to Antoninus Liberalis, who follows Nicander (Heteroioumena, B. 4) and Corinna (fr. 665 PMG), the Minyade…
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