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Mythographi Vaticani

(385 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] is the name under which three collections of myths, which have their origins in the teaching of literature in the Middle Ages, are subsumed ever since their publication from Vatican manuscripts by A. Mai in 1831. MV I (anon., no title, now dated between around 875 and 1075, [3]): 233 short fabulae  are compiled simply in three volumes without any discernible overall theme (Main sources: Serv. in Verg.; [Lactantius Placidus] scholia in Stat. Theb.; Ps.-Lactantius Placidus, Narrationes fabularum Ovidianarum; additionally i.a. Remigius of Auxerre). MV II (anon., no…

Silen(s)

(780 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σιληνός/ Silēnós, Σειληνός/ Seilēnós; Doric Σιλανός/ Silanós; Lat. Silenus, Silanus). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] I. Mythology Creature from Dionysus' entourage Among the collectively acting silens or satyrs, one silen/Silen(us) stands out as a single figure whose origin remains unclear (perhaps comparable: Chiron among the centaurs; Pan in contrast to the various Pans). This figure was fleshed out in mythical stories and satyr plays. The 'Midas-silen' expresses a pessimistic thought to the Phrygian king Midas, a thought typical for the Archai…

Orgia

(252 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (ὄργια/ órgia, nom. plur.; Latin sacra). Etymologically órgia, like orgeṓn (O rgeones ), probably derives from the root *εργ [2] and is thus related to ἔρδω/ érdō - ῥέζω/ rhézō ('I do', 'I sacrifice'; cf. H. Hom. ad Cererem 273f.). A connection with the Mycenaean adjective wo-ro-ki-jo-ne-jo cannot be ruled out [1]. The word ó rgia can mean 'ritual conduct' or 'cult actions', including sacrifices (Syll.3 57,4; Aesch. Sept. 180; Soph. Ant. 1013, Soph. Trach. 765), but may also denote - often clarified by ἄρρητος/ árrhētos ('unspeakable') - '(secret) rites' in the m…

Galinthias

(263 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Γαλινθιάς; Galinthiás). According to Nicander (Heteroiumena 4 = Antoninus Liberalis 29) G. (Galanthis in Ov. Met. 9,285-323 [5. 469f.];  Historis in Paus. 9,11,3; Akalanthis in Lib. narrationes 8, s. [1]), daughter of Proetus, helped  Alcmene when the Moirai and Eilithyia, on Hera's behalf (cf. Hom. Il. 19,119), delayed the birth of  Hercules by folding their hands. With her false report of his birth, G. alarmed them so much that they broke the magical spell and Hercules was born.…

Hermaphroditus

(475 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἑρμαφρόδιτος; Hermaphróditos). Androgynous figure which, like that of Priapus (cf. Diod. Sic. 4,6; [6. 76-79]), did not appear before the 4th cent. BC. Though androgynous gods of the Orient like  Astarte, ‘dual-sexuality’ gods like Aphrodite-Aphroditus on Cyprus, joint cults of Hermes and Aphrodite (see below) have rites involving changing gender roles and the exchange of clothing, as well as a background of myths of successive ( Caeneus,  Teiresias) and simultaneous (e.g. Pl. Symp. 189d-192d) bisexuality, its origin remain somewhat unclear [6. 69]. The na…

Harpalycus

(98 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Ἁρπάλυκος; Harpálykos). [German version] [1] Trac. king Thracian king, father of  Harpalyce. Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [2] Teacher of Heracles in wrestling From Panopeus. Son of  Hermes, teacher of  Hercules in wrestling, boxing and pancratium (Theoc. 24,111-118). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [3] Trojan Trojan, killed by  Camilla with a lance (Verg. Aen. 11,675). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [4] Son of Lycaon Son of  Lycaon (Apollod. 3,97). According to [1] to be compared with the giant Harpolycus. Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) Bibliograp…

Orgeones

(222 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (ὀργεῶνες/ orgeônes, also ὀργειῶνες/ orgeiônes, masc. sg. ὀργεών/ orgeṓn). Orgeônes in general were 'those in charge of orgia' (Aesch. fr. 144 Radt; Hom. Hymnus ad Apollinem 389: ὀργίονες/ orgíones). In the narrower sense, orgeônes (possibly even from as early as the Archaic period: Gai. apud Dig. 47,22,4 ex lege Solonis; not documented in inscriptions before the 4th cent. BC) were members of Attic societies who celebrated (usually annually) sacrificial rites in honour of a hero (hero cult) or a god. They [2] can be split into …

Myesis

(354 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (μύησις/ mýēsis, Lat. initiatio). Myesis is the initiation into a mystery (μυστήρια/ mystḗria, Lat. initia) whereby the candidate for initiation became a μύστης ( mýstēs, Lat. initiatus, initiated). As an additional rank the initiated could later attain the epopteía . As nomen actionis for the verb μυέω/ myéō (‘I initiate’; lat. initiare), which is considered a causativum to μύω/ mýō (‘I close [lips/eyes]’), myesis semantically presupposes the term mýstēs, which, like mystḗria, is not derived from myéō but rather from mýō [1; 7. 414f.]. This derivation, which…

Satyr

(1,533 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Bäbler, Balbina (Göttingen)
(Σάτυρος/ Sátyros, pl. Σάτυροι/ Sátyroi, Latin Satur, Satyrus), also Silenus (Σι-, Σειληνός/ Si-, Seilēnós, pl. Σι-, Σειληνοί/ Si-, Seilēnoí, Doric Σιλανός/ Silanós, Latin Silenus, Silanus). [German version] I. Mythology, art and cult A satyr/Silenus was a member of a group of demons who, since their relatively late emergence at the end of the 7th/beginning of the 6th cent. BC, have formed part of the mythical entourage of the god Dionysus; Silens, as a more or less distinctive and independent figure, emerged from that retinue…

Phaethon

(435 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Φαέθων/ Phaéthōn, 'the shining one', participle of the Greek phaínein). [German version] [1] Epithet of the sun god Helius Epithet of the sun god Helis (first in Hom. Od. 11,16, aside from the descriptive epithet already in Hom. Il. 11,735), which can also be used on its own to describe him in Roman (since Verg. Aen. 5,105) and Greek poetry of the Imperial period (Anth. Pal. 9,137,3; Nonnus, Dion., esp. 38,151f.). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [2] Son of Eos and Kephalos Son of Eos and Cephalus [1], who is kidnapped by Aphrodite and turned into a temple servant (…

Mise

(159 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Μίση/ Mísē, also Μισατίς/ Misatís). Deity associated with Mḗtēr/Cybele (Hsch. s.v. Μ.). According to Orph. H. 42, M. was bisexual and was worshipped in Eleusis, Phrygia, Cyprus (besides Aphrodite), and Egypt (besides Isis). Inscriptions record her cult in Pergamon (Demeter sanctuary, 2nd century AD) and the surrounding region (Samurlu). Her identification with Kore (Persephone), as attested in the Samurlu inscription (cf. Eur. Hel. 1301-1368; schol. Aristoph. Plut. 431), probably lies behind the non-localised festival of her descent ( káthodos, hence proba…

Galli

(339 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Γάλλοι/ Gálloi). ‘Servants’, ‘attendants’ and ‘worshippers’ of the  Mater Magna [1] chiefly in late Republican and Imperial Rome, described consistently as ‘priests’ only in Christian contexts. They first arose, along with the  Metragyrtae, in Asia Minor, late 3rd/early 2nd cent. BC (Pol. 21,6,6 and 21,37,5, 190 and 189 BC; as literary figures: Dioscorides, Anth. Pal. 6,220). The derivation of the name from Gauls or Galatians is now favoured by [4. 229; 3; 2. 118-120]; only from t…

Pentheus

(461 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Πενθεύς/ Pentheús; in Hecataeus FGrH 1 F 31 Τενθεύς/ Tentheús). Son of the spartós Echion [1] and Agaue, cousin of Actaeon and Dionysus and the latter's opponent. The earliest surviving complete presentation of the myth is the complex and controversial Bákchai by Euripides [1] (see [7]; cf. also Theocr. 26; Ov. Met. 3,511-731: [2]; Nonn. Dion. 44 and 46). In this play, P. is the young ruler of Thebes who wants to suppress the new cult of Dionysus, into which the god forces the sisters of Semele, because they challenge …

Lotis

(159 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] Character in two short stories by Ovid (sources unknown): 1) Ov. Met. 9,347-348: L. is turned into the Lotus (Serv. Georg. 2,84: faba Syriaca) when she flees from an attempted rape by Priapus (motif parallels: e.g. Daphne, Ov. Met. 1,452-567; Syrinx, Ov. Met. 1,689-712); 2) Ov. Fast. 1,393-440: L. is warned by the donkey of Silenus and escapes from Priapus without metamorphosis (double in Ov. Fast. 6,319-348: Vesta instead of L.). In contrast to the question of priority that can barely be decided, nowadays Ovid's art of variation is rightly emphasized. Heinze, Theodor (…

Henioche

(179 words)

Author(s): Willi, Andreas (Basle) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Ἡνιόχη/ Hēnióchē, ‘Holder of the reins’). [German version] [1] Eptihet of Hera Epithet of Hera in Boeotian Lebadea, where sacrifices were made to, e.g. , Zeus Basileus, Demeter and H. before consulting the Trophonius-oracle (Paus. 9,39,5); Hera is also a chariot driver in the Iliad (Hom. Il. 8,392). Willi, Andreas (Basle) Bibliography Schachter 1, 240f. [German version] [2] Wife of Creon According to Ps.-Hes. Sc. 83, the wife of  Creon (Soph. Ant. 1180: Eurydice, cf. schol.). Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) [German version] [3] Daughter of Creon Daughter of Creon (Paus. 9,10,3). Heinze, Th…

Cydippe

(316 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
(Κυδίππη; Kydíppē, Latin Cydippe). [German version] [1] Wife of Acontius According to Xenomedes (FGrH 442 T 2; F 1), Callimachus (fr. 67-75) tells how Acontius elicits from C., through an inscription on an apple (a quince: Aristaen. 1,10,26; on the apple-throwing motif: [1]), the vow that she will marry him. Attempts by the father Ceyx that came to nothing to marry C. to someone else lead to the Delphic oracle recommending Acontius as the son-in-law. Through the union the house of Acontiades is founded in…

Christos Paschon

(528 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Χριστὸς Πάσχων; Christòs Páschōn; Lat. Christus Patiens). Christian drama on the story of the Passion, in the form of a  cento. Abbreviated to Ch. P. by A. Bladus (Ed. princeps, Rome 1542); a play of 2,632 lines, in the majority of MSS (mid 13th to beginning 16th cents.) entitled: ‘From the hand of our holy father Gregory the theologian, a dramatic presentation (  Hypóthesis ) after Euripides, comprising the incarnation for our sakes of our Saviour Jesus Christ and his world-redeeming passion’. The paraphrase, offering mo…

Zopyrus

(988 words)

Author(s): Wiesehöfer, Josef (Kiel) | Baumbach, Manuel (Zürich) | Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Weißenberger, Michael (Greifswald) | Meister, Klaus (Berlin) | Et al.
(Ζώπυρος; Zṓpyros). [German version] [1] Persian, took part in the capture of Babylon Prominent Persian, son of Megabyzus [1], who according to Hdt. 3,153ff. had the gates of rebelling Babylon opened to Darius [1] I by using a ruse (self-mutilation and pretending to be a victim of the Great King). For this deceptive manoeuvre (Polyaenus, Strat. 7,13; referring to King Cyrus: Frontin. Str. 3,3,4) Z. allegedly received from Darius the satrapy of Babylonia for life and tribute-free, but he was killed when the B…

Musaeus

(1,336 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva) | Hidber, Thomas (Berne) | Fornaro, Sotera (Sassari)
(Μουσαῖος; Mousaîos). [German version] [1] Mythical companion of the Muses Mythical companion of the Muses (whose name is an adjectival derivative of Μοῦσα ( Moûsa; ‘Muse’)), an archegete of poetry and a close associate of Orpheus connected with Eleusis [1] . As a scion of the Muses (and Selene: Pl. Resp. 2,364e), M. was brought up by them (Ps.-Eur. Rhes. 945-947) and buried on their hill in Athens (Paus. 1,25,8; in Phaleron: Anth. Pal. 7,615). The origin of M. who lived in Eleusis and Athens (Suda s.v. Μ.) (pelike, Beazley, ARV2 1313,7, end of the 5th cent. BC; Aristoxenos fr. 91 Wehrli2 = 2 A…

Hermochares

(144 words)

Author(s): Heinze, Theodor (Geneva)
[German version] (Ἑρμοχάρης; Hermochárēs). Nicander (Heteroieumena 3 = Antoninus Liberalis 1) applies - in a parallel to, or an adaptation (1, 2 with [1. 71 A11]) of the tale of Acontius and  Cydippe (Call. Aitia fr. 65-75) - the motif of throwing an apple to H. of Athens and Ctesylla, the daughter of Alcidamas of Iulis on Ceos; finally the two flee together to Athens. After the death and disappearance ( aphanismós) of Ktesylla in the form of a dove (in Carthaea: Ov. Met. 7,368-370, cf. [1. 72 A20; 2]), an oracle instructs H. to establish a sanctuary in Iulis (aet…
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