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(401 words)

Poseidonia, Paistos, Paestum

(1,150 words)

Author(s): Muggia, Anna (Pavia) | Lesky, Michael (Tübingen)
This item can be found on the following maps: Social Wars | Socii (Roman confederation) | Theatre | | Coloniae | Coloniae | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization | Regio, regiones (Ποσειδωνία/ Poseidōnía: Aristot. Mir. 839a 30; Παιστός/ Paistós: Str. 5,4,13; Ποσειδωνιάς/ Poseidōniás: Scymn. 248; 'Oscan' Παῖστον/ Paîston: Ptol. 3,1,8; Posidonia: Liv. Per. 14; Plin. HN. 3,71; Latin Paestum: Plin. loc. cit.; Pestum: Tab. Peut. 6,5). [German version] I. History Town in Lucania (Aristot. loc. cit.) on the south coast of the Gulf of Salerno (Str. loc. cit.: Π…

Praenestine cistae

(246 words)

Author(s): Lesky, Michael (Tübingen)
[German version] Vessels for toiletries, mainly produced in Praeneste (Palestrina), in the form of a cista . The usually cylindrical body of the vessel was either made completely of bronze or consisted of a wooden or leather core with bronze ornamentation. The figured lid-handles, the feet and the holders for small chains on the walls of the vessels were fitted by various craftsmen at different stages of manufacture. Production of PC had already begun by the middle of the 5th cent. and reached its peak in the 4th and 3rd cents. BC. Only a few cistae have been found outside Palestrina - in Tuscany (Etruria) and in Servigliano (Picenum). PC were particularly noted for the elaborate engravings on the lids and bodies of the vessels. The myths illustrated, like those in contemporaneous South Italian vase painting, were inspired by ancient drama. A noteworthy example is the 'Ficoroni Cista' (Rome, Villa Giulia), whose pictorial themes are traced back to a satyr play by Sophocles. The signature identifies Novios Plautios, a freedman of the Roman gens of the Plautii, as the artist who executed the work. This and other …


(375 words)

Author(s): Lesky, Michael (Tübingen)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Umbri, Umbria | Villanova Culture | Etrusci, Etruria | Etrusci, Etruria | Italy, languages | Colonization (Plin. HN. 3,51,52; Etruscan Velch?, Ὄλκιον/ Ólkion, Steph. Byz. s. v.). City in southern Maremma on the western bank of the River Fiora which connected V. with the interior of Etruria and the coast 12 …


(4,388 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome) | Lesky, Michael (Tübingen) | Niemeyer, Hans Georg (Hamburg) | Oepen, Alexis
(σαρκοφάγος/ sarkophágos, stone coffin, literally 'flesh-eater'; Lat. arca, capsula and sarcofagus, Juv. 10,171). I. Graeco-Roman [German version] A. Material, typology, research Since the 18th cent., scholars have been referring to containers for corpses decorated with reliefs as sarcophagi. These were made of marble, less frequently of limestone, tuff, sandstone, granite, basalt or porphyry. Pliny describes a lapis ... sarcophagus from Assus (Plin. HN 2,210; 36,131) as 'corpse-consuming'. Terracotta and lead were used in certain regions. Wooden sarco…