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Maenalum

(242 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μαίναλον, Μαίναλος, Μαινάλιον; Maínalon, Maínalos, Mainálion). Limestone mountain range about 30 km long between the eastern Arcadian plain and the Helisson valley, up to 1981 m high, with extended fir woods; in modern times without a standardized name; modern Tripolis is at its southern foot. Sacred to Pan, who was called ‘Maenalian’ after it; in poets often in the genitive, hence it also means ‘Arcadian’. The mountains also appear as the hunting grounds of Atalante and Artemis. M. i…

Kronion

(48 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[English version] (Κρόνιον). Der kiefernbestandene Hügel (123 m) oberhalb der Altis in Olympia mit einem nur lit. bezeugten Kronos-Kult (Priesterschaft der Βασίλαι/ Basílai): Xen. hell. 7,4,14; Pind. O. 1,111; 5,17; 6,64; 9,3; Paus. 5,21,2; 6,19,1; 20,1f.; Dion. Hal. ant. 1,34,3. Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Migonion

(36 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Μιγώνιον). Ort an der lakonischen Küste südl. von Gytheion mit Heiligtum der Aphrodite Migonitis (Paus. 3,22,1f.). Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography V. Pirenne-Delforge, L'Aphrodite grecque (Kernos Suppl. 4), 1994, 212f.

Mantineia

(1,333 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaioi, Achaia | Arkades, Arkadia | Athleten | Attischer Seebund | Bildung | Peloponnesischer Krieg | Perserkriege | Theater (Μαντίνεια). [English version] I. Name und Landschaft Ältere Namensform Μαντινέα, att. und danach lit. Μαντίνεια, Ethnikon οἱ Μαντινεῖς; der Stammesname ist primär, der Stadtname davon abgeleitet. Die Stadt liegt im Nordteil der großen ostarkad. Hochebene etwa 12 km nördl. von Tripolis (630 m H). Der Boden der großen Ebene von M. ist wie die ganze Hochebe…

Megale Polis

(783 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaioi, Achaia | Alexandros | Arkades, Arkadia | Attischer Seebund | Bildung | Makedonia, Makedones | Theater (Μεγάλη πόλις, lat. Megalopolis). [English version] A. Lage und Baubestand M.P. liegt mitten in der von vielen Bächen zerschnittenen westarkad. Hochebene (22 km × 10 km, 427 m H) nördl. vom h. Megalopolis (ehemals Sinanou), beiderseits des Unterlaufs des Helisson [1], etwa 4 km vor der Mündung in den Alpheios, wo sich die wichtigsten Straßen nach Arkadia, Messenia und La…

Larisus

(42 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λάρισος; Lárisos). Border river between Elis [1] and Achaea ( Achaeans), modern Mana (also Riolitiko), which rises in the north-western foothills of the Skollis (Str. 8,7,5; Paus. 6,26,10; 7,17,5; 9,5,19; Liv. 27,31,11). Lienau, Cay (Münster) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)

Pelium

(176 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πήλιον; Pḗlion). A mountain range, extending on a north-west to south-east axis and consisting of various slates and chalks, demarcating Thessaly (Thessalians, Thessalia) in the east and, in Antiquity, forming the peninsula of Magnesia [1] from the Ossa [1] to the foothills of Sepia. In Antiquity, P. referred in a narrower sense to the highest peak (Pliassidi; 1624 m). The easterly slope to the sea is precipitous and entirely without harbours, and was feared by ancient navigators…

Lelantion pedion

(90 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λέλαντον, Ληλάντιον or Ληλάντου πεδίον; Lélanton, Lēlántion or Lēlántou pedíon). Fertile plain between Chalcis and Eretria, the possession of which was the object of the ‘Lelantine War’ at the beginning of the 7th cent. BC between these two cities and their allies. Str. 1,3,16; 10,1,9; 3,6; 10,3,6; H. Hom. 2,220; Callim. H. 4,289; Plut. Mor. 153f; Theophr. Hist. pl. 8,8,5; 8,10,4; Ael. VH 6,1; SEG XIII, 178; 312. In the Middle Ages the Lelantion pedion was still called Lilanto. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)

Methana

(277 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] This item can be found on the following maps: Macedonia, Macedones (ἡ Μεθάνα; hē Methána or τὰ Μέθανα; tà Méthana). Peninsula and city on the north coast of the Argolid peninsula. The circular peninsula, about 9 km across and with a highest elevation of 743 m, is linked to the mainland by a 300 m wide isthmus. It consists almost entirely of young volcanic rocks and lava flows. The last known eruption, to which a crater and a lava flow on the northwestern coast still bear witness today, took place at…

Celossa

(49 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κηλῶσσα; Kēlôssa, Str. 6,8,24; Κηλοῦσα; Kēloûsa, Xen. Hell. 4,7,7; Κηλοῦσσα; Kēloûssa, Paus. 2,12,4), modern Megalovouni. Mountain range between Phlius and Argos (1273 m), with an Artemis sanctuary [1]. Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography 1 M. Th. Mitsos, Inscriptions of the Eastern Peloponnesus, in: Hesperia 18, 1949, 75.

Megalopolis

(910 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Alexander | Achaeans, Achaea | Macedonia, Macedones | Arcadians, Arcadia | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Μεγάλη πόλις/ Megálē pólis, Lat. Megalopolis). [German version] A. Location and architectural remains The ancient city lies in the middle of the western Arcadian plateau (22 km × 10 km, 427 m elevation), which is criss-crossed by a multitude of small streams, north of modern Megalopolis (formerly Sinanou), on both sides of the lower reaches of River Helisson [1…

Leros

(352 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λέρος; Léros). Island of the Dodecanese, off the coast of Asia Minor, between Patmos and Kalymnos, 53,5 km2 in extent. Its coast has several bays and coastal plains that extend deep into the interior of the island. According to Str. 10,5,19, L. and its neighbour Calymna were included in the Kalýdnai nḗsoi (Hom. Il. 2,677). The island, which has kept its ancient name until today, was already settled in the early Bronze Age (potsherds near Parthenium). There is a Mycenaean fortress in the north on the Kastro above the bay of Alinda…

Lade

(79 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λάδη; Ládē). Island originally off the coast of Miletus, length 3 km, height up to 98 m, today only a hilly ridge about 2 km from the coast because of the alluvial deposits of the Maeander. L. became known through the defeat of the Greeks in the Ionian Rebellion 496 BC: Hdt. 6,7ff.; Thuc. 8,17,3; Arr. Anab. 1,18,4ff.; Str. 14,1,7; Paus. 1,35,6. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. L., RE 12, 381.

Lemnos

(813 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Peloponnesian War | Pergamum | Persian Wars | Athenian League (Second) | Aegean Koine (Λῆμνος; Lêmnos). [German version] A. Location Fertile L., which is, however, today almost treeless, is - at 477 km2 - one of the larger Aegean islands. Mainly consisting of slate with volcanic rock deposited in it, the low hill country reaches its highest elevation with the Skopia at 470 m. The rugged coast has bays that cut in deeply. The ancient capital cities were Myrina on the west coast (remains of a…

Cythera

(756 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Sparta | Grain Trade, Grain Import | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Punic Wars | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Aegean Koine | Education / Culture (Κύθηρα; Kýthēra, Lat. Cythera, the modern Kithira). [German version] A. Geography of the island Off the south-eastern tip of the Peloponnese, 30 km long and 18 km wide, C. covers an area of around 262 km2, and is surrounded by several small, uninhabited islands. The coast consists mostly of steep cliffs, indented with small bays from which narrow, steep valleys lead into…

Pelethronium

(84 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πελεθρόνιον; Pelethrónion). Valley or region on the western slopes of the peak of  Pelium in Thessalia, where Chiron is supposed to have grown up and where the herb chironion or centaurion, used for healing snake bites, grew. Hence poetically the epithet 'Pelethronian' is used for Chiron, but also generally for 'Thessalian'. Documentation: Nic. Ther. 438ff.; 505; Strab. 7,3,6; Verg. G. 3,115. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography F. Stählin, Das hellenische Thessalien, 1924, 43f.  Id., s.v. Pelethronion, RE 19, 269f.

Lycaeum

(426 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λύκαιον; Lýkaion). In the broad sense, the entire mountain mass consisting of various limestones west of the plateau of Megale Polis in Parrhasia (Paus. 8,2,1; 38,2ff.; 4,20,2; 8,41,3; Str. 8,3,22; Paus. 8,2,1; Thuc. 5,54,1). Polybius reckoned the L. to be among the largest mountain ranges of Greece (in Str. 4,6,12; ὤρεα μακρά in Theoc. 1,123). The L. mountain range in antiquity was rich in springs and forests; today it still has extensive fir forests (Paus. 8,38,3f.). It was fam…

Malea

(330 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] [1] SO-Kap der Peloponnesos (Μαλέα ἄκρα, Μάλεια, Μαλέαι, ἀκρωτήριον Μαλέας, Μαλειάων ὄρος, vgl. Hom. Od. 3,287; 19,187; neuere Bezeichnungen Κάβο Μαλιάς, Ἅγιος Ἄγγελος). Das in Alt. wie Neuzeit gefürchtete SO-Kap der Peloponnesos, südl. Ausläufer des Parnon (vgl. das von Strab. 8,6,20 überl. Sprichwort ‘wenn du um M. fährst, vergiß die daheim’; [1. 262ff.]). Die Hauptschwierigkeit für die ant. Segelschiffahrt lag in den oft tage- und wochenlang dauernden, heftigen, stürmischen Gegenw…

Kyllene

(221 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κυλλήνη). [English version] [1] Gebirge in Arkadia Das nördlichste Gebirge in Arkadia im Grenzbereich nach Achaia, das zweithöchste (Ziria, 2374 m) der Peloponnesos, ein nach allen Seiten von den umgebenden Gebirgszügen abgesetzter Kalksteinrücken. Den ant. Autoren galt die K. als das höchste Gebirge auf der Peloponnesos (Strab. 8,8,1; Paus. 8,17,1). Die K. war dem Hermes Kyllenios heilig. Er soll hier in einer Höhle geboren worden sein und Taten wie die Erfindung des Saitenspiels vollbracht haben (Ho…

Magnesia

(1,058 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) | Blümel, Wolfgang (Köln) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Μαγνησία). [English version] [1] thessal. Küstenlandschaft (Ethnikon Μάγνης, Μαγνῆτες/ Mágnēs, Magnḗtes; IG IX 2,1228 b16: Dat. Pl. Μαγνείτεσσι 3. Jh.v.Chr.). Die thessal. Küstenlandschaft vom Peneios bis zum Golf von Pagasai mit der sich weit nach Süden erstreckenden, schmalen Halbinsel, die den pagasaiischen Golf nach Osten und Süden abschließt, ganz von den Bergen Ossa und Pelion und ihren Ausläufern erfüllt. Die Ostküste gegen das offene Meer war hafenlos und gefürchtet; hier erlitt die Flotte des Xe…
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