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Tricaranum

(45 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Τρικάρανον; Trikáranon). Mountain ridge on the north-eastern Peloponnesus (Xen. Hell. 7,2,1; 7,2,5 f.; 7,2,11 ff.; 7,4,11; Steph. Byz. s. v. Τ.), modern Koutsi, east of Phlius (highest elevation is Hagios Elias: 730 m). Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography E. Meyer, s.v. T., RE 6 A, 144 f.  Pritchett 2, 103-105.

Messapeae

(63 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μεσσαπέαι; Messapéai). Region around the sanctuary of Zeus Messapeus, south west of Sparta, possibly on the hill of Agios Georgios east of Lele on the road to Gythium or near modern Katzarou or Antochori (Paus. 3,20,3; Theop. FGrH 115 F 245). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography D. Musti, M. Torelli (ed.), Pausania, vol. 3: La Laconia, 1991, 254f.

Phylace

(188 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Φυλάκη; Phylákē). [German version] [1] City of Achaea Phthiotis City, mentioned in Homer and other early verse as well as passages dependent on them, belonging to Achaea Phthiotis in the Halmyrus plain. P. was the home of Protesilaus; as late as Pind. I.1,83f. P. is mentioned with a sanctuary of Protesilaus. Later P. was evidently absorbed in Thebae Phthiotides (Heraclides fr. 3,3 identifies P. with it), which continued the cultural and mythological tradition of P. A more precise location at Thebae is not possible. Sources: Hom. Il. 2,695; 13,696; 15,335; Str. 9,5,8; 9,5,14. Kramolisc…

Maenalum

(242 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μαίναλον, Μαίναλος, Μαινάλιον; Maínalon, Maínalos, Mainálion). Limestone mountain range about 30 km long between the eastern Arcadian plain and the Helisson valley, up to 1981 m high, with extended fir woods; in modern times without a standardized name; modern Tripolis is at its southern foot. Sacred to Pan, who was called ‘Maenalian’ after it; in poets often in the genitive, hence it also means ‘Arcadian’. The mountains also appear as the hunting grounds of Atalante and Artemis. M. i…

Metope

(286 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Building panel In Greek building inscriptions μετόπιον/ metópion i.e. μετόπη/ metópē (supporting documents: [1. 29-32]), in Vitruvius metopa (cf. [2]) is the opening or gap, which in Greek columned buildings is framed by two triglyphs ( triglyphos) in a Doric Frieze. In wooden buildings metopes were openings next to the projecting beam ends that were finished as carved triglyphs and probably served to ventilate the roof truss. The space between the triglyphs was already closed up in early Greek…

Cyprus

(2,847 words)

Author(s): Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Cyprus [3] The island was incorporated into Roman possessions in 58 BC and remained part of the province of Cilicia until 48/47 BC. It was returned to the Ptolemaic kingdom by Caesar and Antony, and came permanently into Roman possession from 30 BC. As a province in its own rights, it was initially administered by a legatus, then from 22 BC by the Senate through an annually appointed procurator; following Diocletian's reorganization of the provinces, it was placed under the administration of the consularis of the dioecesis Oriens in Antioch [1] . After the initial f…

Macaria

(197 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Μακαρία; Makaría). [German version] [1] Daughter of Heracles and Deianira Daughter of Heracles and Deianira; sacrifices herself voluntarily in the war of the Athenians and the Heraclidae against Eurystheus to secure victory ( Human sacrifices): first referred to in this way in Eur. Heracl., but without mentioning her name; possibly already in Aeschylus or in Athenian local myth [1. XVI, XXXI-XXXIII, 111f.] Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 J. Wilkins (ed.), Euripides, Heraclidae, 1993 (introduction and commentary). [German version] [2] Spring in Tricorythus Spring in Tricor…

Kronion

(48 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)
[English version] (Κρόνιον). Der kiefernbestandene Hügel (123 m) oberhalb der Altis in Olympia mit einem nur lit. bezeugten Kronos-Kult (Priesterschaft der Βασίλαι/ Basílai): Xen. hell. 7,4,14; Pind. O. 1,111; 5,17; 6,64; 9,3; Paus. 5,21,2; 6,19,1; 20,1f.; Dion. Hal. ant. 1,34,3. Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart)

Migonion

(36 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
[English version] (Μιγώνιον). Ort an der lakonischen Küste südl. von Gytheion mit Heiligtum der Aphrodite Migonitis (Paus. 3,22,1f.). Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Bibliography V. Pirenne-Delforge, L'Aphrodite grecque (Kernos Suppl. 4), 1994, 212f.

Peirene

(439 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich)
[English version] [1] Danaide (Πειρήνη). Eine der Danaiden (Danaos), mit Dolichos (Hyg. fab. 170) oder Agaptolemos (Apollod. 2,1,5) verheiratet. Junk, Tim (Kiel) [English version] [2] Eponymin der gleichnamigen Quelle in Korinthos (Πειρήνη, Πειράνα). Junk, Tim (Kiel) [English version] I. Mythologie Eponymin der gleichnamigen Quelle P. in Korinthos. Als ihre Eltern werden Flußgötter wie Asopos [2] und Metope [2] (Diod. 4,72,1) und Acheloos [2] (Paus. 2,2,3) genannt, aber auch Oibalos [1] (die ‘Großen Ehoien nach Paus. l.c.). Sie ist Mu…

Mantineia

(1,333 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaioi, Achaia | Arkades, Arkadia | Athleten | Attischer Seebund | Bildung | Peloponnesischer Krieg | Perserkriege | Theater (Μαντίνεια). [English version] I. Name und Landschaft Ältere Namensform Μαντινέα, att. und danach lit. Μαντίνεια, Ethnikon οἱ Μαντινεῖς; der Stammesname ist primär, der Stadtname davon abgeleitet. Die Stadt liegt im Nordteil der großen ostarkad. Hochebene etwa 12 km nördl. von Tripolis (630 m H). Der Boden der großen Ebene von M. ist wie die ganze Hochebe…

Megale Polis

(783 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
Dieser Ort ist auf folgenden Karten verzeichnet: Achaioi, Achaia | Alexandros | Arkades, Arkadia | Attischer Seebund | Bildung | Makedonia, Makedones | Theater (Μεγάλη πόλις, lat. Megalopolis). [English version] A. Lage und Baubestand M.P. liegt mitten in der von vielen Bächen zerschnittenen westarkad. Hochebene (22 km × 10 km, 427 m H) nördl. vom h. Megalopolis (ehemals Sinanou), beiderseits des Unterlaufs des Helisson [1], etwa 4 km vor der Mündung in den Alpheios, wo sich die wichtigsten Straßen nach Arkadia, Messenia und La…

Kypros

(2,399 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) | Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Princeton) | Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[English version] [1] Zypern (Κύπρος, lat. Cyprus, Zypern). Meyer, Ernst † (Zürich) Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) [English version] I. Geographische Lage Mit 9250 km2 ist K. die drittgrößte Insel des Mittelmeers, 227 km lang und bis 95 km breit. K. ist vom nächsten Punkt Kleinasiens, Kap Anemurion, ca. 65 km, die Ostspitze der langen, schmalen östl. Landzunge Karpass von der syr. Küste etwa 96 km entfernt. K. ist geologisch gesehen recht junger, tertiärer Entstehung. An der Nordküste erstreckt sich ein schmaler, steiler …

Phthia

(341 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Badian, Ernst (Cambridge, MA)
[German version] [1] Kingdom of Peleus and Achilles (Φθία/ Phthía, Φθίη/ Phthíē). The kingdom of Peleus and Achilles [1], home of the Myrmidones (Hom. Il. 1,155; 2,683f.; 762-767; 19,323; Hom. Od. 11,496), extending over the valley of the Spercheius and the adjacent north shore of the Thermaios Kolpos (Str. 9,5,8). The Spercheius was regarded as the home river of Achilles (Hom. Il. 23,140-144) and Phthios as the son of Spercheus (schol. Hom. Il. 23,142). The Dolopes lived 'in the most remote part of P.' (H…

Olympus

(2,377 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Scherf, Johannes (Tübingen) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Et al.
(Ὄλυμπος/Ólympos). Geography: [1-13]. People: [14-15]. [German version] [1] Home of the ›Olympian‹ gods, highest mountain in Greece (Latin Olympus) (Latin Olympus). Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) [German version] I. Geography The highest mountain in Greece, regarded as the home of the 'Olympian' gods (twelve (Olympian) gods). Its altitude, overlooking all of its surroundings, creates a powerful impression, as do its massive size and density and its dramatic ascent, especially at the east and west, which …

Larisus

(42 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λάρισος; Lárisos). Border river between Elis [1] and Achaea ( Achaeans), modern Mana (also Riolitiko), which rises in the north-western foothills of the Skollis (Str. 8,7,5; Paus. 6,26,10; 7,17,5; 9,5,19; Liv. 27,31,11). Lienau, Cay (Münster) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)

Tropaea Augusti

(269 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] ( Tropaeum Alpium). Large monument to Augustus' subjugation of the whole Alpine region, in modern La Turbie on a 486 metre-high outcrop dominating Monte Carlo on the Roman coastal road to Gaul on the Italian border (CIL V 2,7817; Ptol. 3,1,2). Rising on a  high rectangular plinth with sides about 32.5 m long a circular building, encircled by columns with a triglyph frieze, is topped by a staircase-like stepped conical roof with a statue of Augustus on a special plinth as a crowning …

Cyllene

(244 words)

Author(s): Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Κυλλήνη; Kyllénḗ). [German version] [1] Mountain range in Arcadia The northernmost mountain range in Arcadia in the border area stretching to Achaea, the second highest (Ziria, 2,374 m) of the Peloponnese, a limestone ridge that ends on all sides with the surrounding chain of mountains. The ancient authors considered C. to be the highest mountain range in the Peloponnese (Str. 8,8,1; Paus. 8,17,1). C. was sacred to  Hermes Cyllenius. He is said to have been born here in a cave and to have accomplished d…

Oenussae

(160 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Külzer, Andreas (Vienna)
(Οἰνοῦσσαι/ Oinoûssai). [German version] [1] Group of three islands on the southwest tip of the Messenic peninsula off the coast of Methone [1] Group of three islands on the southwest tip of the Messenic peninsula off the coast of Methone [1]: present-day Sapientza, Schiza and Hagia Mariani. The first two have been inhabited since the Hellenistic period. Traces of a Roman settlement were found in Sapientza. References: Paus. 4,34,12; Plin. HN. 4,55; Mela 2,110. Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography E. Kirsten, F. Bölte, s.v. O., RE 17, 2281f. [German version] [2] Gro…

Pelium

(176 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πήλιον; Pḗlion). A mountain range, extending on a north-west to south-east axis and consisting of various slates and chalks, demarcating Thessaly (Thessalians, Thessalia) in the east and, in Antiquity, forming the peninsula of Magnesia [1] from the Ossa [1] to the foothills of Sepia. In Antiquity, P. referred in a narrower sense to the highest peak (Pliassidi; 1624 m). The easterly slope to the sea is precipitous and entirely without harbours, and was feared by ancient navigators…
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