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Messapeae

(63 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μεσσαπέαι; Messapéai). Region around the sanctuary of Zeus Messapeus, south west of Sparta, possibly on the hill of Agios Georgios east of Lele on the road to Gythium or near modern Katzarou or Antochori (Paus. 3,20,3; Theop. FGrH 115 F 245). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography D. Musti, M. Torelli (ed.), Pausania, vol. 3: La Laconia, 1991, 254f.

Phylace

(188 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum)
(Φυλάκη; Phylákē). [German version] [1] City of Achaea Phthiotis City, mentioned in Homer and other early verse as well as passages dependent on them, belonging to Achaea Phthiotis in the Halmyrus plain. P. was the home of Protesilaus; as late as Pind. I.1,83f. P. is mentioned with a sanctuary of Protesilaus. Later P. was evidently absorbed in Thebae Phthiotides (Heraclides fr. 3,3 identifies P. with it), which continued the cultural and mythological tradition of P. A more precise location at Thebae is not possible. Sources: Hom. Il. 2,695; 13,696; 15,335; Str. 9,5,8; 9,5,14. Kramolisc…

Maenalum

(242 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μαίναλον, Μαίναλος, Μαινάλιον; Maínalon, Maínalos, Mainálion). Limestone mountain range about 30 km long between the eastern Arcadian plain and the Helisson valley, up to 1981 m high, with extended fir woods; in modern times without a standardized name; modern Tripolis is at its southern foot. Sacred to Pan, who was called ‘Maenalian’ after it; in poets often in the genitive, hence it also means ‘Arcadian’. The mountains also appear as the hunting grounds of Atalante and Artemis. M. i…

Metope

(286 words)

Author(s): Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Building panel In Greek building inscriptions μετόπιον/ metópion i.e. μετόπη/ metópē (supporting documents: [1. 29-32]), in Vitruvius metopa (cf. [2]) is the opening or gap, which in Greek columned buildings is framed by two triglyphs ( triglyphos) in a Doric Frieze. In wooden buildings metopes were openings next to the projecting beam ends that were finished as carved triglyphs and probably served to ventilate the roof truss. The space between the triglyphs was already closed up in early Greek…

Cyprus

(2,847 words)

Author(s): Senff, Reinhard (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Berger, Albrecht (Berlin) | Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Cyprus [3] The island was incorporated into Roman possessions in 58 BC and remained part of the province of Cilicia until 48/47 BC. It was returned to the Ptolemaic kingdom by Caesar and Antony, and came permanently into Roman possession from 30 BC. As a province in its own rights, it was initially administered by a legatus, then from 22 BC by the Senate through an annually appointed procurator; following Diocletian's reorganization of the provinces, it was placed under the administration of the consularis of the dioecesis Oriens in Antioch [1] . After the initial f…

Macaria

(197 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Lohmann, Hans (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Lienau, Cay (Münster)
(Μακαρία; Makaría). [German version] [1] Daughter of Heracles and Deianira Daughter of Heracles and Deianira; sacrifices herself voluntarily in the war of the Athenians and the Heraclidae against Eurystheus to secure victory ( Human sacrifices): first referred to in this way in Eur. Heracl., but without mentioning her name; possibly already in Aeschylus or in Athenian local myth [1. XVI, XXXI-XXXIII, 111f.] Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) Bibliography 1 J. Wilkins (ed.), Euripides, Heraclidae, 1993 (introduction and commentary). [German version] [2] Spring in Tricorythus Spring in Tricor…

Malieis

(434 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μαλιεῖς; Malieîs). Tribe of the estuary plain of the Spercheius, whose territory bordered on the gulf named after them, and in the west, in the Spercheius Valley, on that of the Aenianes. Homer makes no mention of them. They were among the original members of the Pylaeic-Delphic amphictyony ( amphiktyonía), whose first centre, the sanctuary of Demeter at Anthele, lay in their territory (Aeschin. or. 2,116; Paus. 10,8,2; Theopomp. FGrH 115 F 63). Their archaic customs are often men…

Pyrasus

(104 words)

Author(s): Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Πύρασος; Pýrasos). City in Achaea Phthiotis (Hom. Il. 2,695) on the northeastern edge of the Halmyrus plain, today's Nea Anchialos. Settled from prehistoric times until the present; in the historical era it belonged to Thebes (Str. 9,5,14). Archaeology: large Christian basilica and other buildings. Kramolisch, Herwig (Eppelheim) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography F. Hild, E. Hanschmann, s. v. P., in: Lauffer, Griechenland, 578 f.  P. Lazaridis, Βυζαντινὰ καὶ μεσαιωνικὰ μνημεῖα Θεσσαλίας: Νέα Ἀγχίαλος Φθιώτιδες Θῆβαι, in: AD 25, 1970, 286 f.  TIB 1, 271  E. Viss…

Ladon

(581 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Strobel, Karl (Klagenfurt)
(Λάδων; Ládōn). [German version] [1] Dragon The dragon referred to in Apoll. Rhod. 4,1396, elsewhere referred to only as a ‘serpent’ ( óphis, drákōn), who guards the apples of the Hesperides (as also mentioned on Probus in Verg. G. 1,244); he has a hundred heads and many voices. Mythographers have him either be descended directly (as a chthonic beast) from Gaia (as is Typhon) or from related monsters (Phorcys and Ceto, the parents of Echidna and grandparents of the Lernean Hydra in Hes. Theog. 333-335; Echidna and…

Mantinea

(1,467 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
This item can be found on the following maps: Theatre | Achaeans, Achaea | Peloponnesian War | Persian Wars | Arcadians, Arcadia | Athletes | Athenian League (Second) | Education / Culture (Μαντίνεια; Mantíneia). [German version] I. Name and landscape Older form of the name Μαντινέα, Attic and later literary form Μαντίνεια, the tribe was οἱ Μαντινεῖς; hoi Mantineîs. The tribal name is primary, with the town name derived from it. The town lies in the northern part of the large eastern Arcadian plateau, some 12 km north of Tripolis (630 m elevation). The…

Lampeia

(50 words)

Author(s): Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λάμπεια). Mountain range, up to 1,793 m high, south of the Erymanthus mountain range, in the north-east of the nomos Elis [1], modern Lambia (Apoll. Rhod. 1,127; Diod. Sic. 4,112,1; Str. 8,3,10; Paus. 8,24,4; Plin. HN 4,20; Stat. Theb. 4,290). Lienau, Cay (Münster) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)

Peirene

(489 words)

Author(s): Junk, Tim (Kiel) | Lienau, Cay (Münster) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] [1] Danaid (Πειρήνη/ Peirḗnē). One of the Danaids (Danaus), married to Dolichus (Hyg. Fab. 170) or Agaptolemus (Apollod. 2,1,5). Junk, Tim (Kiel) [German version] [2] Eponym of the spring of the same name in Corinthus (Πειρήνη/ Peirḗnē, Πειράνα/ Peirána). Junk, Tim (Kiel) [German version] I. Mythology Eponym} of the spring of the same name in Corinthus. Her parents are named as river gods such as Asopus [2] and Metope [2] (Diod. Sic. 4,72,1) and Achelous [2] (Paus. 2,2,3), sometimes also Oebalus [1] (the 'Great Ehoiai' according to Paus. loc. cit.). She is the mother …

Leros

(352 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λέρος; Léros). Island of the Dodecanese, off the coast of Asia Minor, between Patmos and Kalymnos, 53,5 km2 in extent. Its coast has several bays and coastal plains that extend deep into the interior of the island. According to Str. 10,5,19, L. and its neighbour Calymna were included in the Kalýdnai nḗsoi (Hom. Il. 2,677). The island, which has kept its ancient name until today, was already settled in the early Bronze Age (potsherds near Parthenium). There is a Mycenaean fortress in the north on the Kastro above the bay of Alinda…

Lade

(79 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Λάδη; Ládē). Island originally off the coast of Miletus, length 3 km, height up to 98 m, today only a hilly ridge about 2 km from the coast because of the alluvial deposits of the Maeander. L. became known through the defeat of the Greeks in the Ionian Rebellion 496 BC: Hdt. 6,7ff.; Thuc. 8,17,3; Arr. Anab. 1,18,4ff.; Str. 14,1,7; Paus. 1,35,6. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography L. Bürchner, s.v. L., RE 12, 381.

Cerea

(104 words)

Author(s): Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Κέρεια; Kéreia). Island of the Cyclades (15 km2, height of more than 200 m) between Naxos and Amorgos, modern Keros (Stadiasmus maris magni 282; Geogr. Rav. 5,21: Cerus). In 425/4, it was a member of the Delian League (tribute of 630 drachmas, [1. vol. 1, 231, 308f., 501; vol. 3, 198]). Excavations uncovered an important early Cycladic settlement. Idol finds in the National Museum in Athens. Kalcyk, Hansjörg (Petershausen) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography 1 ATL. L. Bürchner, s.v. K., RE 11, 253 Philippson/Kirsten vol. 4, 146f. E. Karpodini-Demetriade, Die gri…

Crathis

(340 words)

Author(s): Parra, Maria Cecilia (Pisa) | Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Olshausen, Eckart (Stuttgart) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
(Κρᾶθις; Krâthis). [German version] [3] River in Bruttium that rises near  Consentia and flows into the sea near Thurii, today known as Crati. Legend held that its water could be used to dye the hair of people and animals blond (Eur. Tro. 228; Ael. NA 12,36; Aristot. Mir. 169). The valley of C. formed the main connection between inner Bruttium and the plains of  Sybaris. The river received its name from Achaean colonists after the name of a river in their homeland (Hdt. 1,145); according to other sou…

Magnesia

(1,218 words)

Author(s): Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Blümel, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Kaletsch, Hans (Regensburg)
(Μαγνησία; Magnēsía). [German version] [1] Thessalian coastal region (Ethnicon Μάγνης, Μαγνῆτες/ Mágnēs, Magnêtes; IG IX 2,1228 b16: dat. pl. Μαγνείτεσσι/ Magneítessi 3rd cent. BC). The Thessalian coastal region of Peneius to the Gulf of Pagasae with a narrow peninsula stretching far to the south, which encloses the Gulf of Pagasae in the east and south, filled up completely by the mountains Ossa and Pelion and their foothills. The east coast toward the open sea was without a harbour and feared by sailors; in 480 B…

Midea

(306 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) | Funke, Peter (Münster)
(Μίδεια; Mídeia or Μιδέα; Midéa). [German version] [1] City in Argolis This item can be found on the following maps: Mycenaean culture and archaeology | Mineral Resources City in Argolis, in mythology (cf. Paus. 2,16; 25) one of the most important cities in the region. It had a Mycenaean citadel and palace on a steep hill about 1 km from modern Dendra in the northeast of the Argolian plain. Already abandoned in the Mycenaean period. Tholos tombs with rich finds, several burial chambers. New excavations started in 1983. Th…

Phoenix

(1,747 words)

Author(s): Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) | Nünlist, René (Basle) | Ameling, Walter (Jena) | Di Marco, Massimo (Fondi Latina) | Hünemörder, Christian (Hamburg) | Et al.
(Φοῖνιξ/ Phoînix, Latin Phoenix). Persons P. [1-4], the mythical P. bird [5], the date palm P. [6], geographical locations P. [7-9]. [German version] [1] Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus Mythical king of Sidon or Tyrus, son of Agenor [1] and Telephassa (Apollod. 3,2-4), brother of Europe [2],  Cadmus [1] and Cilix, according to others also their father (Hom. Il. 14, 321); other children: Phineus (Apoll. Rhod. 2, 178), Carne (Antoninus Liberalis 40). Eponym of the Phoenicians and the Poeni ( Poeni; cf. Phoenicians, Poeni). Käppel, Lutz (Kiel) [German version] [2] Son of Amyntor Son of Amyn…

Migonium

(38 words)

Author(s): Lafond, Yves (Bochum) | Meyer, Ernst (Zürich)
[German version] (Μιγώνιον; Migṓnion). A locality on the Laconian coast south of Gythium, with a sanctuary of Aphrodite Migonitis (Paus. 3,22,1f.). Lafond, Yves (Bochum) Meyer, Ernst (Zürich) Bibliography V. Pirenne-Delforge, L'Aphrodite grecque (Kernos Suppl. 4), 1994, 212f.
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