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Heraclidas

(115 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Atrax in Thessaly, active in the 4th cent. BC. Together with Hippocrates he signed a victory votive of the Pharsalians in Delphi, where it was set up in the mid 4th cent. BC. Because of the measures at the base, it may have been the bronze group of Achilles on horseback and Patroclus, which Pausanias (10,13,5) describes. However, because the base bears a rededication to Claudius there can be no certainty. Pausanias may not have seen the original work. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography G. Daux, Pausanias à Delphes, 1936, 141-143 J. Marcadé, Recueil de…

Calamis

(634 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Greek sculptor; ancient sources praise his horses and female figures, refer to him as the sculptor who made the transition to the classical period. He endowed his works with both ‘hardness’ and ‘grace’. He is linked with  Onatas,  Praxiteles and  Scopas. Many researchers have tried to solve the chronological contradictions by assuming that there were numerous sculptors of the same name with various surviving works ascribed to them. Since no work can be sufficiently proven to originate from C., the extent of his work is not known. From the famous C. originated a stat…

Pasticcio

(587 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Italian for 'pie, hotchpotch'). The figurative meaning, which arose in the 17th cent., referred to works in which elements of style or motifs of different artists were imitated, as charming features or for purposes of deception. In figurative art, pasticcio first referred to the combination of ancient friezes with plaster-work on Roman palazzi of the 17th and 18th cents. Pasticcio thereafter described esp. modern combinations of various ancient fragments with new works. In archaeology, the term was used mostly pejoratively for eclectic wo…

Silanion

(280 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Σιλανίων; Silaníōn). Bronze sculptor from Athens. According to Plin. HN 34,51 he was the height of his career in 328-325 BC. S. created statues of the mythical figures Achilles, Theseus and Jocasta, and in Olympia the victor statues of the boxers Damaretus, Telestas and Satyrus. A 'sports instructor' ( epistaten exercentem athletas, Plin. HN 34,82) ascribed to him can perhaps be interpreted as Connidas, Theseus' teacher. Of S.'s portraits a statue of Plato in the Athenian Academy is recognised has been reliably identified in Roma…

Zeuxiades

(86 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ζευξιάδης/ Zeuxiádēs). Bronze sculptor, pupil of Silanion (Plin. HN 34,51). A base from Rome, recorded in the 19th cent. and since lost, was evidence that Z. had created a sculpture of the rhetor Hypereides, which can be dated on historical grounds to after 307 BC. The usual identification of this sculpture with a certain type of which only copies have survived must be rejected. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, 1350 Loewy, Nr. 483 Lippold, 303 P. Moreno, s. v. Z., EAA 7, 1267 f. Richter, Portraits 2, 210 f.

Alexander Sarcophagus

(174 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Modern technical term for the most opulent of all Greek relief sarcophagi ( Relief;  Sarcophagi). Found in 1887 in the royal necropolis of Sidon, it is attributed to the local regent  Abdalonymus (333-312 BC). It belongs to the group of house sarcophagi with architectural decor and is famous for the relief images on which residues of painting have been preserved. It is usually believed that Alexander is the warrior with the lion's trophy in the battle against the Persians, and tha…

Micciades

(99 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Μικκιάδης; Mikkiádes). Father of Archermus, of Chios. Pliny (HN 36,11) places him at the head of a Chian family of sculptors, erroneously giving him as the son of one Melas [4]. However, the source which Pliny misread (and which survives), a votive epigram from Delos, dated to approx. 550 BC, does not say that M. was a sculptor. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, No. 314 Loewy, No.1 J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, Vol. 2, 1957, 75 B. S. Ridgway, The Nike of Archermos and Her Attire, in: J. Boardman (ed.), Chios, 1986, 259-274.

Alxenor

(47 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Sculptor from Naxos. He signed a grave stele from Orchomenus to be dated around 500-490 BC, which shows the deceased in a standing pose with his dog. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography LSAG, 292 pl. 55 Lippold, 114 G. Richter, Archaic Greek Art, 1949, fig. 255.

Endoeus

(165 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἔνδοιος; Éndoios) Sculptor in Athens in the late 6th cent. BC. He made statues of goddesses in ivory and wood for Ephesus, Erythrae and Tegea, the latter were later brought to the forum of Augustus in Rome. His seated marble figure of Athena, the dedicatory gift of a certain Nicias on the Athenian Acropolis, is identified as the statue Athens, AM Inv. No. 625 ( c. 520 BC). The suppletion of his signature on the votive relief of a potter is plausible, but the association of a signed base with the kore Athens, AM Inv. No. 602 is uncertain. The p…

Critius

(308 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Κρίτιος; in written sources: Κριτίας). Bronze sculptor in Athens. C. is always mentioned together with Nesiotes. His prime was in 448-444 BC, Pliny's date is too late. C. was a contemporary of  Hegias [1]. In antiquity his style was considered antiquated and dry. He became famous as the master of the  Severe Style (1st third of the 5th cent. BC) with his statues of  Harmodius [1] and  Aristogeiton, the Tyrannicide group, which in 477/6 BC was set up in the Agora to replace a grou…

Hermathena, Hermeracles

(98 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Cicero called the  Herms of Athena and Hercules, which Atticus had obtained in 67-65 BC for Cicero's Tusculanum (Cic. Att. 1,1; 4; 8; 9; 10), Hermathena and Hermeracles. The bronze heads were set on marble pillars and were considered an appropriate ornamentum for his peristyle, which was compared to the Academia and a gymnasium. These terms are Cicero's creation. Setting up Herms of this type in the gardens of Roman villas became a common practice. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography R. Neudecker, Die Skulpturenausstattung röm. Villen in Italien, 1988, 11-18 H. Wr…

Styppax

(83 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Cyprus in the 5th century BC. He was famous for his statue of a splanchnoptes (Plin. HN 34,19,81), a slave who blows on the fire to roast the entrails at a sacrifice. It was erected on the orders of Pericles [1] as a votive offering after his slave was injured during the building of a temple and miraculously healed. The work does not survive. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Overbeck, Nr. 868-869  P. Moreno, s. v. S., EAA 7, 1966, 535-536.

Agoracritus

(246 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Ἀγοράκριτος; Agorákritos). Sculptor from Paros, master of the high-classical period in Athens. Uncertain attributions to A., his rival  Alcamenes and their teacher  Phidias are reflected in anecdotes of ancient literature, which makes attributing the œuvre difficult. When it came second in a contest with Alcamenes, A. is said to have sold a statue of Aphrodite to a buyer in Rhamnus as one of Nemesis, or that Phidias had one of his own statues signed by A. The signature was discove…

Tabula Iliaca

(155 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Archeological technical term for marble plates with illustrations of the Homeric epics (Homerus [1]). The small plates with a height of up to 25 cm are covered on both sides with low reliefs in miniature with accompanying texts. Most of the 22 extant plates refer to the Iliad, one to the Odyssey. The most complete plate, the so-called Tabula Capitolina (Rome, KM), contains parts of the Aethiopís as well. The plates are dated to the early Imperial Period and were all found in Rome. Some are attested to have been produced by T…

Phyromachus

(686 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Φυρόμαχος/ Phyrómachos). Sculptor of Athens, teacher of the painters Heraclides [30] (active 168 BC) and Milon. The written and archaeological traditions, which are controversial, reveal at least the existence of a famed artist who was active under the Attalid kings (Attalus) of Pergamum. The Laterculi Alexandrini (late 2nd cent. BC) place him in a list of artists, and Pliny (HN 34,84) has the same in mind when documenting the sculptors who worked for Attalus and Eumenes. As Pliny only makes a generalized reference to the monumenta Attalidum, it cannot be demonstr…

Apellas

(117 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
(Ἀπελᾶς; Apellâs). [German version] [1] Bronze sculptor, 4th cent. BC (Apelleas). Bronze sculptor, son of the sculptor Callicles from Megara. He created the victory monument described by Pausanias for Cynisca, sister of Agesilaus of Sparta, who participated in the Olympic chariot races in 396 and 392 BC. Parts of the base with the epigram handed down in general tradition was discovered; apart from this, the base of a reduced replica of the commemorative statue was also found. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography W. Dittenberger, Die Inschr. von Olympia, 1896, no. 160, 634 F. Eckste…

Phyles

(65 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] (Φυλῆς; Phylês). Son of one Polygnotus, bronze sculptor from Halicarnassus. 23 bases of lost portrait statues with the signature of P. survive in Delos, Rhodes and Lindos; according to them he was active between 258 and 213 BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography Lippold, 343  J. Marcadé, Recueil des signatures de sculpteurs grecs, vol. 2, 1957, 89-100  EAA 6, s.v. P., 1965, 142-143.

Argeadas

(50 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor from Argus. In Olympia, he was a collaborator on the substantial votive offering by one Praxiteles, dated between 484 and 461 BC. Neudecker, Richard (Rome) Bibliography W. Dittenberger, Die Inschr. von Olympia, 1896, no. 266, 630, 631 F. Eckstein, Ἀναθήματα, 1969, 61-64 Loewy, no. 30 p. XVIII.

Sculptor

(546 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] In Graeco-Roman culture sculptors were less artists than technicians, as were, in the early period at least, architects and inventors. The ancient terms for them relate to the materials they use, e.g. lithourgós/ sculptor (for stone), chalkourgós/ aerarius (bronze), plástēs or koropláthos/ fictor (clay), ceroplastes (wax), and the social esteem of the product, e.g. lapidarius (stonecutter), agalmatopoiós and andriantopoiós (artist of pictures of people and gods) and toreutḗs (maker of small bronzes). Signatures occasionally give information about…

Cresilas

(294 words)

Author(s): Neudecker, Richard (Rome)
[German version] Bronze sculptor of Cydonia. According to the evidence of inscriptions on existing socles, C. worked c. 450-420 BC in Delphi, Hermione and Athens. He created the most famous portrait of  Pericles in antiquity, ‘worthy of the epithet Olympian’ (Plin. HN 34,74). It was regarded as identical with the portrait statue of Pericles seen by Pausanias on the acropolis and which is clearly identified in copies. A statue by C. depicting a mortally wounded figure ( volneratum deficientem) was described by Pliny and is usually equated with the bronze statue depicting D…
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