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Pous

(195 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (πούς/ poús, 'foot', Lat. pes ). A poús is a Greek unit of length, taken from the proportions of the human body, of 4 παλαισταί ( palaistaí; p alaistḗ ; 'hand width', Lat. palmus ) or 16 δάκτυλοι ( dáktyloi; d áktylos ; 'finger width', Lat. digitus). Owing to differing regional calculations its length varied between c. 270 and 350 mm; an Attic foot was c. 300 mm. The poús is a subunit of larger units; 100 pódes correspond to a  πλέθρον (

Quartarius

(62 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (Greek τέταρτον/ tétarton, 'quarter'). The quartarius was a Roman measure of volume for liquids and dry goods at 1/4 sextarius , corresponding to 2 acetabula or 3 cyathi. Standardized to water, the quartarius is equivalent to 0.136 l. Acetabulum; Cyathus Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 H. Chantraine, s. v. q., RE 24, 830-834 …

Pes

(331 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] The pes ('foot') was the basic unit of Roman measures of length (corresponding to 296·2 mm). According to Vitruvius (Vitr. 3,1,5) it, its subdivisions digitus ('fingerwidth'; Greek δάκτυλ…

Stadion

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(στάδιον; stádion). [German version] [1] Unit of length (Doric σπάδιον/ spádion). Greek unit of length equal to 6 pléthra ( pléthron ; cf. Hdt. 2,149,3) or 600 pous (foot). Depending on the underlying standard of the foot ( pous), this corresponds to a length of c. 162-210 m; the Attic stadion is equal to 186 m. The stadion for the race at Olympia had a length of 192.3 m, at Delphi 177.3 m, at Epidaurus 181.3 m, and at Athens 184.3 m. 8  stadia correspond approximately to 1 Roman mile ( mille passus) of 1500 m. In Greek literature, larger distances are generally indicated in

Hekteus

(177 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (ἑκτεύς; hekteús). Greek term for a dry measure, mainly for grain, in volume 1/6   medimnos , corresponding to 8   choinikes and 32   kotylai . According to [1], the hekteus depends on the region and amounts to 8.75 litres (Attica) or 12.12 litres (Aegina) [1. 504-506]. In the Ptolemaic period the hekteus corresponded to 13.13 litres [1. 623]. According to [3], the Attic hekteus passed through the stages of 4.56, 5.84, 6.56, 8.75, 10.21, 10.94 litres, the Aeginetan-Lakonian hekteus corresponded to 9.12 litres. According to [6], the Solonian hekteus amounted to 8…

Urna

(59 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Roman fluid measure  (Measures of volume); corresponding to half an amphora [2] and hence 4 congii or 24 sextarii. In modern terms approximately 13·1 litres. As an expression of quantity the u. often appears in the context of viticulture (Colum. 3,3…

Ponderarium

(384 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] was the Latin name for the office of weights and measures. The calibration of scales and weights and of measuring-vessels for fluids and dry goods took place, both in Greece and the Roman Empire in a building in the vicinity of the marketplace, in which were kept the town's official weights and a block of stone sunk with depressions of various depths and fitted with removable metal inserts for the standardization of measures of volume. There is a copy of such a 'measuring table' ( mensa ponderaria, Greek σήκωμα/ sḗkōma) with cavities of different sizes in the Forum of…

Parasanges

(75 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (παρασάγγης; parasángēs). Babylonian-Assyrian and Persian measurement of length, equal to 30 stadia (cf. Hdt. 2,6,3; Xen. An. 5,5,…

Mensor

(294 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] was the Latin term for technical experts who carried out measurements in the broadest sense of the word. Mensores agrarii ( agrimensores, geometrae, gromatici, surveyor) were responsible in both civil and military domains for marking out surfaces, laying out roads, aqueducts, and building camps. This activity gained great importance during the 1st cent. BC, as a consequence of the allocation of land to veterans. According to the representation on the gravestone of L. Aebutius Faustus (CIL V 6786 = ILS 7736), their main instrument was the groma. Mensores aedificiorum

Sicilicus

(154 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (also quartuncia = 1/4 uncia ; Greek σικελικός/ sikelikós). Roman unit of 1/48 of a larger whole. As a weight the sicilicus corresponds to 1/48 of a libra [1] = 6,82 g and hence 11/2 sextulae , as a length …

Quincunx

(173 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] The quincunx ( quinque unciae; Greek πεντόγκιον/ pentónkion) was a Roman measure equalling 5/12 of a larger unit, als…

Cardo, kardo

(377 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] The point around which something rotates; technical term in Roman land-surveying ( limitatio); within the rectangular grid of the survey, it refers to the horizontal lines ( limites). Originally, it was a cosmological term, referring to the pivotal point of the uni- verse; later, it was used to describe the north-south axis -- in contrast with the east-west axis of the   decumanus , which divided the world into two halves, one of sunrise and one of sunset, or one of day and one of night [1. 147]. In gromatic theory ( Surve…

Multiplum

(382 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Technical term used in ancient numismatics to describe multiples of a particular denomination or of a larger format minting from precious or non-precious metals. Frequently multiplum is used erroneously as a synonym for the term 'medallion'; the latter, however, excludes any function as a means of payment, whereas multipla are a fundamental part by weight of the current coin system. In the Greek sphere, the oktadrachmon and the dekadrachmon can be spoken of as multipla, as their minting can as a rule be seen in connection with particular events. In Rome we encounter the b…

Kotyle

(109 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] [1] see Gefäße, Gefäßformen/-typen see Skyphos Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) [German version] [2] Dry measure (κοτύλη/ kotýlē; Latin cotula, cotyla). Graeco-Latin name for a measure of volume for liquids equalling …

Semuncia

(188 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Roman unit, 1/24 of a larger whole. As a weight a semuncia corresponds to half an ounce/ uncia ( “semuncia, quod dimidia pars unciae”, Varro Ling. 5,171) and hence to 1/24 of a libra [1] = 13·64 g (value indicator S or Σ), as a measure of length to 1/24 of a pes = 12·3 mm, as a unit of square measure to 1/24 of a iugerum = 105.1 m2, as a measure of time to 1/24 of an hour, as an interest rate to 1/24 of a centesima (1 % a month, 12 % a year) = 1/2 %. In the late Roman and Byzantine system of weights a semuncia corresponds to 12 scripula (value indicator  XII, IB; s cripulum ) or 3 solidi

Decumanus

(282 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] is a technical term from Roman surveying ( Limitatio), and denotes the perpendicular lines ( limites) in a rectangular surveying system; originally it was a term from cosmology, for the east-west axis as sighting line for the apparent movement of the heavens [1. 199]: counterpart of the   cardo , which as north-south axis divides the world into the hemisphere of the sunrise and that of the sunset, or diurnal and nocturnal hemispheres [2. 147]. In the practise of land-surveying the decumanus maximus was established as an axis of orientation on the basis of to…

Lupinus

(47 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Latin term for the lupin ( Lupinus albus; Lupin), which was used instead of coins in board games as a counter. As a small weight it was equal to a 1/4 scripulum , about 0.28 grammes or 1/100 of an ounce. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
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