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## Pous

(195 words)

*poús*, 'foot', Lat.

*pes*). A

*poús*is a Greek unit of length, taken from the proportions of the human body, of 4 παλαισταί (

*palaistaí*;

*p*

*alaistḗ*; 'hand width', Lat.

*palmus*) or 16 δάκτυλοι (

*dáktyloi*;

*d*

*áktylos*; 'finger width', Lat.

*digitus*). Owing to differing regional calculations its length varied between

*c.*270 and 350 mm; an Attic foot was

*c.*300 mm. The

*poús*is a subunit of larger units; 100

*pódes*correspond to a πλέθρον (

*pléthron*), 600

*pódes*to a στάδιον (

*st*

*ádion*); cf. table.

**Greek units of length and the relationships between them**

**Unit of length**δάκτυλος …

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Saton

(65 words)

*sáton*, Latin

*satum*;

*seā*) is a Hebrew capacity measure for liquids and dry goods. Its volume varies in time and place between 20 and 24 loghim (Log; Hin; Sextarius) and corresponds to roughly 9.1-13.1 litres. During the Roman period the

*s.*was equated with 1 1/2 Italic

*modii*(

*Modius*[3]) (Jos. Ant. Iud. 9,85; less often 1 1/4

*modii*). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Quartarius

(62 words)

*tétarton*, 'quarter'). The

*quartarius*was a Roman measure of volume for liquids and dry goods at 1/4

*sextarius*, corresponding to 2

*acetabula*or 3

*cyathi*. Standardized to water, the

*quartarius*is equivalent to 0.136 l. Acetabulum; Cyathus Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography

**1**H. Chantraine, s. v.

*q.*, RE 24, 830-834

**2**F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, s. Index.

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Pes

(331 words)

*pes*('foot') was the basic unit of Roman measures of length (corresponding to 296·2 mm). According to Vitruvius (Vitr. 3,1,5) it, its subdivisions

*digitus*('fingerwidth'; Greek δάκτυλος/

*dáktylos*= 1/16 foot) and

*palmus*('handwidth'; Greek παλαιστή/

*palaistḗ*= 1/4 foot) and its sesquimultiple

*cubitus*('cubit'; Greek πῆχυς/

*pȇchys*) draw on the proportions of the human body. Following the duodecimal system usual in coinage, the

*pes*was also subdivided into 12

*unciae*('inches'). Numerous surviving folding foot-long rules of bronze, bone or brass ge…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Stadion

(1,137 words)

*stádion*). [German version] [1] Unit of length (Doric σπάδιον/

*spádion*). Greek unit of length equal to 6

*pléthra*(

*pléthron*; cf. Hdt. 2,149,3) or 600

*pous*(foot). Depending on the underlying standard of the foot (

*pous*), this corresponds to a length of

*c.*162-210 m; the Attic

*stadion*is equal to 186 m. The stadion for the race at Olympia had a length of 192.3 m, at Delphi 177.3 m, at Epidaurus 181.3 m, and at Athens 184.3 m. 8

*stadia*correspond approximately to 1 Roman mile (

*mille passus*) of 1500 m. In Greek literature, larger distances are generally indicated in

*stádia*; if other…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Hekteus

(177 words)

*hekteús*). Greek term for a dry measure, mainly for grain, in volume 1/6

*medimnos*, corresponding to 8

*choinikes*and 32

*kotylai*. According to [1], the

*hekteus*depends on the region and amounts to 8.75 litres (Attica) or 12.12 litres (Aegina) [1. 504-506]. In the Ptolemaic period the

*hekteus*corresponded to 13.13 litres [1. 623]. According to [3], the Attic

*hekteus*passed through the stages of 4.56, 5.84, 6.56, 8.75, 10.21, 10.94 litres, the Aeginetan-Lakonian

*hekteus*corresponded to 9.12 litres. According to [6], the Solonian

*hekteus*amounted to 8…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Urna

(59 words)

*amphora*[2] and hence 4

*congii*or 24

*sextarii*. In modern terms approximately 13·1 litres. As an expression of quantity the

*u.*often appears in the context of viticulture (Colum. 3,3,2; 3,3,10; 3,9,2 f.). Sextarius (with table) Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 116 ff.

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Ponderarium

(384 words)

*mensa ponderaria*, Greek σήκωμα/

*sḗkōma*) with cavities of different sizes in the Forum of…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Xestes

(129 words)

*xéstēs*). From the turn from the 3rd cent. BC to the 2nd onwards, the term

*xestes*is recorded as a Greek term for the Roman

*sextarius*, a fluid and dry measure of capacity (=

*c.*0.546 l) corresponding to 1/48 of an

*amphora*[2], 1/6 of a

*congius*or 2

*heminae*, 4

*quartarii*and 12

*cyathi*. In late Antiquity Egypt, 72

*xestai*/

*sextarii*corresponded to an

*artábē*, which was subdivided into 48

*choínikes*. Hence a

*choínix*can be equated with 11/2

*xestai*/

*sextarii*. Sextarius (with table) Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography

**1**H. Chantraine, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 210…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Parasanges

(75 words)

*parasángēs*). Babylonian-Assyrian and Persian measurement of length, equal to 30 stadia (cf. Hdt. 2,6,3; Xen. An. 5,5,4) or 10,800 royal cubits, the equivalent of

*c*. 5.7km. According to Herodotus, roads as well as those areas of land included in the tax land register were measured in parasangs in the kingdoms of the Ancient Near East (Hdt. 6,42,2). Stadion [1] Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 476ff.

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Mensor

(294 words)

*Mensores agrarii*(

*agrimensores*,

*geometrae*,

*gromatici*, surveyor) were responsible in both civil and military domains for marking out surfaces, laying out roads, aqueducts, and building camps. This activity gained great importance during the 1st cent. BC, as a consequence of the allocation of land to veterans. According to the representation on the gravestone of L. Aebutius Faustus (CIL V 6786 = ILS 7736), their main instrument was the groma.

*Mensores aedificiorum*…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Sicilicus

(154 words)

*quartuncia*= 1/4

*uncia*; Greek σικελικός/

*sikelikós*). Roman unit of 1/48 of a larger whole. As a weight the sicilicus corresponds to 1/48 of a

*libra*[1] = 6,82 g and hence 11/2

*sextulae*, as a length 1/48 of a

*pes*=

*c.*6 mm, as an area 1/48 of a

*iugerum*= 52,5 m2, as a time unit 1/48 of an

*hora*(hour) = 11/4 minutes (Plin. HN 18,324). In the imperial monetary system of the Greek East the sicilicus was synonymous with the

*assárion*. In the late Roman and Byzantine systems of weights the sicilicus was equivalent to 6

*scripula*(value mark VI or Ε;

*scripulum*) or 11/2

*solidi*(Solidus). I…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Quincunx

(173 words)

*quincunx*(

*quinque unciae*; Greek πεντόγκιον/

*pentónkion*) was a Roman measure equalling 5/12 of a larger unit, also in the sense of 5% in interest or an inheritance. As a measure of weight it corresponds to 5/12

*libra*= 136,4 g, as one of area to 5/12

*iugerum*= 1051 m2, as one of volume 5/12

*sextarius*= 0·23 l. Because of its exceptional position within the usual duodecimal system, weights of this value are extraordinarily rare. Examples from the Roman period bear the value mark IIIII (CIL XIII 10030,36) or V, pieces from the Byzantine period Γ-Ε. The

*quincunx*as a bronze…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Cardo, kardo

(377 words)

*limites*). Originally, it was a cosmological term, referring to the pivotal point of the uni- verse; later, it was used to describe the north-south axis -- in contrast with the east-west axis of the

*decumanus*, which divided the world into two halves, one of sunrise and one of sunset, or one of day and one of night [1. 147]. In gromatic theory ( Surve…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Multiplum

(382 words)

*multiplum*is used erroneously as a synonym for the term 'medallion'; the latter, however, excludes any function as a means of payment, whereas

*multipla*are a fundamental part by weight of the current coin system. In the Greek sphere, the oktadrachmon and the dekadrachmon can be spoken of as

*multipla*, as their minting can as a rule be seen in connection with particular events. In Rome we encounter the

*b…*

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Kotyle

(109 words)

*kotýlē*; Latin

*cotula*,

*cotyla*). Graeco-Latin name for a measure of volume for liquids equalling 1/144

*metretes*or 1/12

*chous*[1], the equivalent of 4

*oxybapha*or 6

*kyathoi.*Also the name for a dry measure of a volume of 1/192

*medimnos*or 1/32

*hekteus*. According to Hultsch, conversion is

*c*. 0.27 l [1. 108, 703, table X], according to Viedebantt

*c*. 0.22 l [2. 1547f.] with fairly large regional variations. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliogr…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Semuncia

(188 words)

*semuncia*corresponds to half an ounce/

*uncia*(

*“semuncia, quod dimidia pars unciae”*, Varro Ling. 5,171) and hence to 1/24 of a

*libra*[1] = 13·64 g (value indicator S or Σ), as a measure of length to 1/24 of a

*pes*= 12·3 mm, as a unit of square measure to 1/24 of a

*iugerum*= 105.1 m2, as a measure of time to 1/24 of an hour, as an interest rate to 1/24 of a

*centesima*(1 % a month, 12 % a year) = 1/2 %. In the late Roman and Byzantine system of weights a

*semuncia*corresponds to 12

*scripula*(value indicator XII, IB;

*s*

*cripulum*) or 3

*solidi*…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Decumanus

(282 words)

*limites*) in a rectangular surveying system; originally it was a term from cosmology, for the east-west axis as sighting line for the apparent movement of the heavens [1. 199]: counterpart of the

*cardo*, which as north-south axis divides the world into the hemisphere of the sunrise and that of the sunset, or diurnal and nocturnal hemispheres [2. 147]. In the practise of land-surveying the

*decumanus maximus*was established as an axis of orientation on the basis of to…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Lupinus

(47 words)

*Lupinus albus*; Lupin), which was used instead of coins in board games as a counter. As a small weight it was equal to a 1/4

*scripulum*, about 0.28 grammes or 1/100 of an ounce. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Kapetis

(56 words)

*kapétis*). Persian measure of volume for dry goods; it corresponds to 1/48 of an artabe, therefore to 1 Attic

*choinix*and

*c.*1.1 l [1. 479-482]. Xenophon also mentions a καπίθη/

*kapíthē*, which corresponded to 2 Attic

*choinikes*(Xen. An. 1,5,6). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography

**1**F. Hultsch, Griech. und röm. Metrologie, 21882.

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Plethron

(96 words)

*pléthron*). A

*p.*(Latin

*iugerum*) is a Greek unit of length of 100 feet, corresponding to 1/6 στάδιον/

*stádion*(Stadion). Depending on the underlying length of the foot (Pous), it has a length of

*c.*27-35 m; an Attic

*plethron*comes to 31 m. In Homeric epic,

*plethron*is synonymous with the length of a furrow;

*plethron*can also be found there as a unit of area for a piece of land 100 feet square (cf. also Hom. Il. 23,164: ἑκατόμπεδον ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα). Measures Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography

**1**F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 28.

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Pertica

(155 words)

*Pertica*is the name given to the measuring rod (bar) of the Roman land surveyor and architect (mostly with a length of 10 feet (

*decempeda*) =

*c*. 2,96 m, more rarely with 12, 15 or 17 feet).

*Pertica*is also the t.t. for the area surveyed with the rod as well as, in the form

*pertica quadrata*, for the surface measurement for an area of 10 × 10 feet. As a regional special form,

*pertica*is known from Germania as a length measure of 12 feet according to the

*pes Drusianus*at 33.3 cm, corresponding to 3.99 m. In agriculture,

*pertica*is the term for the stakes used in viticulture to at…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Sescuncia

(126 words)

*sescunx*;

*sesqui unciae*= 1 1/2

*unciae*). Roman unit for 1/8 of a larger whole. As a weight it equals 1/8 of a

*libra*[1] = 40.93 gr. (value mark I-L; AE 1968, 258), as a length, 1/8 of a

*pes*= 37 mm, as an area, 1/8 of a

*iugerum*= 315 m2. In the eastern Mediterranean the

*sescuncia*as a weight was also equal to 12 Attic drachmai (value mark I-B). In coinage, the

*sescuncia*corresponds to 1/8 of an

*as*, later also 1/8 of a

*denarius*. As a coin the

*sescuncia*is found in Venusia (SNG Munich, 1970, 550) and in Paestum (SNG Copenhagen, 1969, 1346). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliog…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Hexas

(285 words)

*hexâs*). Greek name for silver and

*aes*coins from Sicily and (more rarely) southern Italy worth 1/6

*litra*; also called

*dionkion*, Latin equivalent

*sextans*, since the coin system used there was based on 12

*unciae*to the

*litra*. Value symbol: 2 dots. The extremely rare smallest silver coins (average weight 0.14 g) of this nominal are attested in Tarentum [5. 1117-1121], Acragas [2. 122], Himera [1. 30], Leontini [7. 1345], Messana [7. 326], Segesta [1. 48] and Syracuse [3. 373]. Owing to the non-uniform standard of the bronze

*litra*, the

*aes*coins have greatl…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Measure of volume

(1,573 words)

*sea*) were made of wood. Special measures for liquids can only be identified locally with a standard ‘vessel’ usually containing 20 or 30 litres. Despite all temporal and local differences, a relatively constant absolute size of the small unit (Sumerian sìla, Akkadian

*qû*= c.…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Medimnos

(102 words)

*médimnos*) is the largest Greek unit of measurement for dry substances, with a volume of 6

*hekteis*( Hekteus), equivalent to 48

*choinikes*( Choinix) and 192

*kotylai*( Kotyle [2]). According to Hultsch, it equals

*c*. 52.5 l, according to Nissen

*c*. 51.8 l with considerable regional differences. Measures of volume Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography

**1**F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 108, 703 tab. X

**2**M. Lang, M. Crosby, Weights, Measures and Tokens (The Athenian Agora 10), 1964, 41ff.

**3**H. Nissen, Griechische und römische M…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Quadrantal

(177 words)

*quadrantal*(cubic foot) was the basic Roman unit of volume (Measure of volume) for liquids, identical in measurement to the

*amphora*[2], equal to 2

*urnae*, 8

*congii*, 48

*sextarii*, 96

*heminae*, 192

*quartarii*etc. (cf. table). Calibrated to water, the

*quadrantal*was equal to 80

*librae*(1

*libra*= 327.45 g), i.e. 26.2 litres. The

*quadrantal*was probably standardized in the late 3rd cent. BC by a

*lex Silia de mensuris et ponderibus*(Fest. 288).

**The Roman measures of volume and their relationships**

**Unit of volume**

*acetabulum*

*quartarius*

*hemina*

*sextarius*…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Kypros

(2,178 words)

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Sextula

(144 words)

*u*

*ncia*; cf. Varro Ling. 5,171:

*aeris minima pars sextula, quod sexta pars unciae*). Roman unit of measurement constituting 1/72 of a bigger whole. As unit of weight, the

*sextula*corresponds to 1/72 of the

*libra*[1] = 4,55 g, as unit of area to 1/72 of the

*iugerum*= 35 m2. In the Late Roman and Byzantine weight system, the

*sextula*was equivalent to four

*scripula*(value symbol Δ;

*scripulum*) or one

*solidus*(value symbol N).

*Sextula*also appears as part of the declared weight on silver crockery from Late Antiquity (CIL XIII 3100,5; 10026,25; 29a). Schulzki…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Iugerum

(232 words)

*actus*, 12

*unciae*, 288

*scripula*, with 1

*scripulum*corresponding to 100 square feet. A full calculation of the sub-units is given by Columella 5,1,4-5,2,10 [2. 627]. Varro, Rust. 1,10,2 mentions

*heredium*(2 I.),

*centuria*(200 I.) and

*sa…*

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Kados

(128 words)

*kádos*, Latin

*cadus*, ‘jug, pail’). Graeco-Latin term for a vessel, usually earthen, for storing fluids. In Athens,

*kados*was also the term for the biggest unit in the measure of volume, synonymous with metretes, equal to 39,4 l. [1. 101-102; 703 table X A]. In Rome,

*kados*was the measure of Greek wines, as opposed to Italian wines, which were measured by the amphora [2]. In Roman literature,

*kados*is a technical term for wine jug, often used metonymically for wine by the poets of the Augustan period. Records show that satirists also used the…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Hekte

(190 words)

*héktē*). Greek term for the sixth of a unit. Nominal term for the electrum staters ( Stater) of Cyzicus (inscription IG I2 199; 203), Mytilene and Phocaea made of a gold-silver alloy. In addition, series from the 7th to the 5th cents. BC have been found from indeterminate minting sites of Asia Minor that were launched according to the Milesian, Phocaean and Samian-Euboean standard [3. 7-17]. The coins of Mytilene and Phocaea made in the gold-silver ratio of 1:131/3 [1. 55] as joint mintings according to the coinage agreement of 394 BC [2. 29] corresp…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Hemina

(166 words)

*emina*). Latin term adopted from the Greek (ἡμίνα;

*hēmína*) for a measure of volume for liquids and dry goods in the volume of 1/96 amphora, 1/32 modius, 1/2 sextarius, corresponding to 2 quartarii, 4 acetabula, 6 cyathi. It corresponds to 0.273 l; calibrated in relation to water, there are 10 ounces to 1

*hemina*. Widespread as a measurement for drinks - comparable with ‘half a pint’ in comedy and in other writers [1. 2602-2604] as well as a quantity indicator in recipes in Caelius Apicius [2. 99-100; 3. 143]. As an oil measure,

*hemina*describes by the name λιτραῖ…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Konche

(81 words)

*kónchē*; Lat.

*concha*; ‘mussel, small bowl’); technical term for a minimum measure, used mostly by doctors to specify a quantity of ointment. In this system, the ‘large konche’ (μεγάλη κόγχη/

*megálē konche*) is equivalent to an oxybaphon and corresponds to

*c*. 0.06 l, the ‘small konche’ (ἐλάττων κόγχη,

*eláttōn konche*) equivalent to 1/2 cyathus [2] and corresponds to

*c*. 0.02 l [1. 636]. Measures of volume Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography

**1**F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882.

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Groma

(227 words)

*gnṓmōn*). Name of the Roman surveyors' device for determining straight lines and right angles when surveying a terrain. It consists of a pole about the height of a man (

*ferramentum*) and a rotatable cross of four horizontal rods (

*stella*) attached to it at right angles. On the four ends were attached plumb-lines (

*perpendicula*) almost down to the ground. The plumb attached to the centre point of the rotary cross (

*umbilicus soli*) was aligned above the measurement point by a slight slanting of the

*ferramentum*[3]. The application is known through Heron o…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Metretes

(110 words)

*metrētḗs*) is the Greek name for the largest unit of measurement for fluids, synonymous with

*kados*, a volume of 12

*chóai*( Chous [1]), corresponding to 144

*kotýlai*( Kotyle [2]). It is equivalent to approximately 39,4 litres, according to Hultsch, whereas Nissen puts it at approximately 38,9 litres. Measures of Volume Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography

**1**F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882 (reprint 1971), 101f., 703 table X A

**2**M. Lang, M. Crosby, Weights, Measures and Tokens (The Athenian Agora 10), 1964, 56ff.

**3**H. Nissen, G…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Kyathos

(159 words)

*kýathos*, Latin

*cyathus*; 'cup'); Graeco-Latin term for a measure of volume for fluids amounting to 1/6 kotyle [2] or 1/72 chous [1] in the Greek system [1. 104] and 1/12 sextarius or 1/576 amphora [2] [1. 117] in the Roman, equivalent to approx. 0.045 l. In the Roman system, the

*cyathus*was also a unit of measure for the ladle used to serve wine from the

*krater*into the drinking-cup [1. 118], the volume of …

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Ro

(44 words)

*r*, literally 'cup') is an Egyptian measure of capacity for fluids and dry goods at 1/32 Hin (

*c.*0,48 l) and corresponds to

*c.*0,015 l. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography

**1**W. Helck, S. Vleming, s. v. Maße u. Gewichte, LÄ 3, 1201 f.

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Measures

(1,991 words)

*kùš,*Akkadian

*ammatu*, normally

*c.*50 cm; in the 1st millenni…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Palaiste

(115 words)

*palaist*

*ḗ*). Greek unit of length (a 'hand's width', cf. Latin

*palmus*) of 4 δάκτυλοι (

*dáktyloi*), corresponding to 1/4 foot. Extrapolating from the length of the underlying measurement, the foot (πούς/

*pous*), the palaiste is between 68 and 87 mm long. This unit of measure, the

*dáktylos*('finger's width'), the σπιθαμή (

*spithamḗ*/'span') and the πῆχυς (

*pêchys*/'cubit') draw on the proportions of the human body. According to Herodotus 1 foot corresponds to 4 hands and a cubit to 6 hands (Hdt. 2,149,3). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography

**1**F. Hultsc…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Passus

(113 words)

*bêma diploûn*) of 5 feet, corresponding to

*c.*1.48 m. The

*passus*formed the basic unit for measuring mileage, the Roman road surveys providing distance data on the basis of 1,000 times the

*passus*, i.e. the

*mille passus*(plural

*milia passuum*, abbreviated as MP and corresponding to 1.48 km) (cf. for instance ILS 23: milestone of Polla). In military terminology,

*milia passuum*was also used by way of asserting feats of marching (cf. for instance Veg. Mil. 1,27). Milestones Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliograp…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Spithame

(112 words)

*spithamḗ*, handspan). Greek unit of length taken from the proportions of the human body, extending between the tips of the thumb and little finger, equal to 1/2

*p*, i.e. 3

*ḗ*chys*palaistaí*(

*palaist*) or 12

*ḗ**dáktyloi*

*dáktylos*[1]. Depending on the underlying foot size (

*pous*), its length was

*c.*20-26 cm. According to a metrological relief from the island Salamis [1], the Attic

*spithame*was 24,3 cm long. There was no unit of length corresponding to

*spithame*in the Roman measurement system. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography

**1**K. W. Beinhauer (ed.),…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Sextarius

(163 words)

*xéstēs*, 'a sixth'). Roman unit of fluid and dry capacity equalling 1/48 of an

*amphora*[2], 1/6 of a

*congius,*2

*heminae*, 4

*quartarii*and 12

*cyathi*(Cyathus [2]; see table); a

*sextarius*corresponds to approximately 0,546 l. As a measure of volume

*sextarius*also occurs on ancient measuring vessels. Colloquially

*sextarius*was also used for 1/6 of anything. The

*sextarius*was the largest measure of both fluid and dry capacity; higher units had distinct names.

**Roman units of fluid and dry capacity and their relationships:**

*Unit:*

**sextarius***cyathus*…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Leuga

(360 words)

*leuga*is equivalent to 1.5 Roman miles and corresponds to

*c*. 2,200 m. Whilst in the 1st and 2nd cents. in these provinces the distance indications on the miliaria ( Milestones) were provided exclusively in Roman miles (abbreviation M P =

*milia passuum*), the measures generally appeared in

*leugae*(abbreviation L) from the time of Septimius Sev…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Pondo

(45 words)

*pondus, -i*, 'in weight'. Often used instead of

*libra*[1] as a basic Roman unit of weight in the sense 'at a weight of 1 pound'. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882.

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Ulna

(111 words)

*ōlénē*, literally 'elbow'). A measure of length based on one of the proportions of the human body which appears primarily in poetry (cf. e.g. Hor. Epod. 4,8; Verg. Ecl. 4,105; Verg. G. 3,355); its extent is inconsistent. Whereas the term is occasionally used as a synonym for

*cubitus*(ell = 11/2 feet), it is also found in Plinius [1] the Elder as a translation of ὄργυια/

*órgyia*(fathom = 6 feet; cf. Plin. HN 36,87 with Hdt. 2,148,7), the length a human can span with both arms (Plin. HN 16,133; 16,202). Use as an official measure of length is improbable. Schulzki, Heinz-Jo…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Libra

(249 words)

*pondus*, ‘pound’, metonymic ‘what has been weighted’; Greek equivalent: λίτρα/

*lítra*).

*Terminus technicus*for the unit of weight of 327,45 g of the Roman measuring system; a

*libra*corresponds to the

*as*, which in the duodecimal system was divided into 12

*unciae*of 27,28g [2. 706 fig. XIII]. The standard very likely remained unchanged until early Byzantine times, as evidenced by weighing coins of precious metals and silver implements. [3. 222]. As weights, we find

*librae*of bronze and of lead, also of stone. They are to be differentiated…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Pechys

(137 words)

*pêchys*). Greek measure of length derived from the proportions of the human body, from the tip of the longest finger to the elbow ('ell' or 'cubit', Latin Cubitus), equal to 2 σπιθαμαί (

*spithamaí*/'handspans' ), 6 παλαισταί (

*palaistaí*/'handbreadths'; cf. Latin Palmus) as well as 24 δάκτυλοι (

*dáktyloi*/'fingerbreadths'; cf. Latin

*digitus*), corresponding to 1 1/2 feet (cf. Vitr. De arch. 3,1,8). Depending on the foot measure (Pous) that was used, its length was

*c.*40-52 cm. According to a metrological relief from the island of Salamis, the Attic

*pechys*measured …

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Palmus

(84 words)

*palaistḗ*) of 4

*digiti*, corresponding to 1/4 foot and a length of

*c*. 74 mm (cf. Vitr. De arch. 3,1,8: "relinquitur pes quattuor palmorum, palmus autem habet quattuor digitos."). Like

*digitus*('finger width') and

*pes*('foot') this unit of length is based on the proportions of the human body. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography

**1**F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 74f.

**2**H. Nissen, Griechische und römische Metrologie (Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 1), 21892, 842f.

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly

## Hin

(129 words)

*ḥqt*(

*hekat*) in the Old Kingdom or 1/40

*jpt*(

*oipe*) in the New Kingdom, corresponding to

*c*. 0.48 l [3. 1201], with minimal differences upwards [1. 1644] and downwards [2. 1152]. The hin is the only remaining unit from the Demotic period, corroborated by extant measuring vessels. Its relations to the artabe and choinix are contentious [3. 1210]. Measuring vessels based on the hin have also been handed down from the New Kingdom:

*mḥt*= 1 hin,

*pg*= 1/4 hin,

*mnḏqt*= 50 hin, which seem, however, not to have h…

**Source:**Brill’s New Pauly