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Pous

(195 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (πούς/ poús, 'foot', Lat. pes ). A poús is a Greek unit of length, taken from the proportions of the human body, of 4 παλαισταί ( palaistaí; p alaistḗ ; 'hand width', Lat. palmus ) or 16 δάκτυλοι ( dáktyloi; d áktylos ; 'finger width', Lat. digitus). Owing to differing regional calculations its length varied between c. 270 and 350 mm; an Attic foot was c. 300 mm. The poús is a subunit of larger units; 100 pódes correspond to a  πλέθρον ( pléthron ), 600 pódes to a  στάδιον ( st ádion ); cf. table. Greek units of length and the relationships between them     Unit of length     δάκτυλος …

Saton

(65 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (σάτον/ sáton, Latin satum; seā) is a Hebrew capacity measure for liquids and dry goods. Its volume varies in time and place between 20 and 24 loghim (Log; Hin; Sextarius) and corresponds to roughly 9.1-13.1 litres. During the Roman period the s. was equated with 1 1/2 Italic modii ( Modius [3]) (Jos. Ant. Iud. 9,85; less often 1 1/4 modii). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)

Quartarius

(62 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (Greek τέταρτον/ tétarton, 'quarter'). The quartarius was a Roman measure of volume for liquids and dry goods at 1/4 sextarius , corresponding to 2 acetabula or 3 cyathi. Standardized to water, the quartarius is equivalent to 0.136 l. Acetabulum; Cyathus Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 H. Chantraine, s. v. q., RE 24, 830-834 2 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, s. Index.

Pes

(331 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] The pes ('foot') was the basic unit of Roman measures of length (corresponding to 296·2 mm). According to Vitruvius (Vitr. 3,1,5) it, its subdivisions digitus ('fingerwidth'; Greek δάκτυλος/ dáktylos = 1/16 foot) and palmus ('handwidth'; Greek παλαιστή/ palaistḗ = 1/4 foot) and its sesquimultiple cubitus ('cubit'; Greek πῆχυς/ pȇchys ) draw on the proportions of the human body. Following the duodecimal system usual in coinage, the pes was also subdivided into 12 unciae ('inches'). Numerous surviving folding foot-long rules of bronze, bone or brass ge…

Stadion

(1,137 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) | Decker, Wolfgang (Cologne) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing)
(στάδιον; stádion). [German version] [1] Unit of length (Doric σπάδιον/ spádion). Greek unit of length equal to 6 pléthra ( pléthron ; cf. Hdt. 2,149,3) or 600 pous (foot). Depending on the underlying standard of the foot ( pous), this corresponds to a length of c. 162-210 m; the Attic stadion is equal to 186 m. The stadion for the race at Olympia had a length of 192.3 m, at Delphi 177.3 m, at Epidaurus 181.3 m, and at Athens 184.3 m. 8  stadia correspond approximately to 1 Roman mile ( mille passus) of 1500 m. In Greek literature, larger distances are generally indicated in stádia; if other…

Hekteus

(177 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (ἑκτεύς; hekteús). Greek term for a dry measure, mainly for grain, in volume 1/6   medimnos , corresponding to 8   choinikes and 32   kotylai . According to [1], the hekteus depends on the region and amounts to 8.75 litres (Attica) or 12.12 litres (Aegina) [1. 504-506]. In the Ptolemaic period the hekteus corresponded to 13.13 litres [1. 623]. According to [3], the Attic hekteus passed through the stages of 4.56, 5.84, 6.56, 8.75, 10.21, 10.94 litres, the Aeginetan-Lakonian hekteus corresponded to 9.12 litres. According to [6], the Solonian hekteus amounted to 8…

Urna

(59 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Roman fluid measure  (Measures of volume); corresponding to half an amphora [2] and hence 4 congii or 24 sextarii. In modern terms approximately 13·1 litres. As an expression of quantity the u. often appears in the context of viticulture (Colum. 3,3,2; 3,3,10; 3,9,2 f.). Sextarius (with table) Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 116 ff.

Ponderarium

(384 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] was the Latin name for the office of weights and measures. The calibration of scales and weights and of measuring-vessels for fluids and dry goods took place, both in Greece and the Roman Empire in a building in the vicinity of the marketplace, in which were kept the town's official weights and a block of stone sunk with depressions of various depths and fitted with removable metal inserts for the standardization of measures of volume. There is a copy of such a 'measuring table' ( mensa ponderaria, Greek σήκωμα/ sḗkōma) with cavities of different sizes in the Forum of…

Xestes

(129 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (ξέστης/ xéstēs). From the turn from the 3rd cent. BC to the 2nd onwards, the term xestes is recorded as a Greek term for the Roman sextarius , a fluid and dry measure of capacity (=  c. 0.546 l) corresponding to 1/48 of an amphora [2], 1/6 of a congius or 2 heminae , 4 quartarii and 12 cyathi . In late Antiquity Egypt, 72 xestai/ sextarii corresponded to an artábē, which was subdivided into 48 choínikes. Hence a choínix can be equated with 11/2 xestai/ sextarii. Sextarius (with table) Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 H. Chantraine, s. v. X., RE 9 A, 210…

Parasanges

(75 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (παρασάγγης; parasángēs). Babylonian-Assyrian and Persian measurement of length, equal to 30 stadia (cf. Hdt. 2,6,3; Xen. An. 5,5,4) or 10,800 royal cubits, the equivalent of c. 5.7km. According to Herodotus, roads as well as those areas of land included in the tax land register were measured in parasangs in the kingdoms of the Ancient Near East (Hdt. 6,42,2). Stadion [1] Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 476ff.

Mensor

(294 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] was the Latin term for technical experts who carried out measurements in the broadest sense of the word. Mensores agrarii ( agrimensores, geometrae, gromatici, surveyor) were responsible in both civil and military domains for marking out surfaces, laying out roads, aqueducts, and building camps. This activity gained great importance during the 1st cent. BC, as a consequence of the allocation of land to veterans. According to the representation on the gravestone of L. Aebutius Faustus (CIL V 6786 = ILS 7736), their main instrument was the groma. Mensores aedificiorum

Sicilicus

(154 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (also quartuncia = 1/4 uncia ; Greek σικελικός/ sikelikós). Roman unit of 1/48 of a larger whole. As a weight the sicilicus corresponds to 1/48 of a libra [1] = 6,82 g and hence 11/2 sextulae , as a length 1/48 of a pes = c. 6 mm, as an area 1/48 of a iugerum = 52,5 m2, as a time unit 1/48 of an hora (hour) = 11/4 minutes (Plin. HN 18,324). In the imperial monetary system of the Greek East the sicilicus was synonymous with the assárion . In the late Roman and Byzantine systems of weights the sicilicus was equivalent to 6 scripula (value mark VI or Ε; scripulum ) or 11/2 solidi (Solidus). I…

Quincunx

(173 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] The quincunx ( quinque unciae; Greek πεντόγκιον/ pentónkion) was a Roman measure equalling 5/12 of a larger unit, also in the sense of 5% in interest or an inheritance. As a measure of weight it corresponds to 5/12 libra = 136,4 g, as one of area to 5/12 iugerum = 1051 m2, as one of volume 5/12 sextarius = 0·23 l. Because of its exceptional position within the usual duodecimal system, weights of this value are extraordinarily rare. Examples from the Roman period bear the value mark IIIII (CIL XIII 10030,36) or V, pieces from the Byzantine period Γ-Ε. The quincunx as a bronze…

Cardo, kardo

(377 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] The point around which something rotates; technical term in Roman land-surveying ( limitatio); within the rectangular grid of the survey, it refers to the horizontal lines ( limites). Originally, it was a cosmological term, referring to the pivotal point of the uni- verse; later, it was used to describe the north-south axis -- in contrast with the east-west axis of the   decumanus , which divided the world into two halves, one of sunrise and one of sunset, or one of day and one of night [1. 147]. In gromatic theory ( Surve…

Multiplum

(382 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Technical term used in ancient numismatics to describe multiples of a particular denomination or of a larger format minting from precious or non-precious metals. Frequently multiplum is used erroneously as a synonym for the term 'medallion'; the latter, however, excludes any function as a means of payment, whereas multipla are a fundamental part by weight of the current coin system. In the Greek sphere, the oktadrachmon and the dekadrachmon can be spoken of as multipla, as their minting can as a rule be seen in connection with particular events. In Rome we encounter the b…

Kotyle

(109 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] [1] see Gefäße, Gefäßformen/-typen see Skyphos Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) [German version] [2] Dry measure (κοτύλη/ kotýlē; Latin cotula, cotyla). Graeco-Latin name for a measure of volume for liquids equalling 1/144 metretes or 1/12 chous [1], the equivalent of 4 oxybapha or 6 kyathoi. Also the name for a dry measure of a volume of 1/192 medimnos or 1/32 hekteus . According to Hultsch, conversion is c. 0.27 l [1. 108, 703, table X], according to Viedebantt c. 0.22 l [2. 1547f.] with fairly large regional variations. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliogr…

Semuncia

(188 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Roman unit, 1/24 of a larger whole. As a weight a semuncia corresponds to half an ounce/ uncia ( “semuncia, quod dimidia pars unciae”, Varro Ling. 5,171) and hence to 1/24 of a libra [1] = 13·64 g (value indicator S or Σ), as a measure of length to 1/24 of a pes = 12·3 mm, as a unit of square measure to 1/24 of a iugerum = 105.1 m2, as a measure of time to 1/24 of an hour, as an interest rate to 1/24 of a centesima (1 % a month, 12 % a year) = 1/2 %. In the late Roman and Byzantine system of weights a semuncia corresponds to 12 scripula (value indicator  XII, IB; s cripulum ) or 3 solidi

Decumanus

(282 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] is a technical term from Roman surveying ( Limitatio), and denotes the perpendicular lines ( limites) in a rectangular surveying system; originally it was a term from cosmology, for the east-west axis as sighting line for the apparent movement of the heavens [1. 199]: counterpart of the   cardo , which as north-south axis divides the world into the hemisphere of the sunrise and that of the sunset, or diurnal and nocturnal hemispheres [2. 147]. In the practise of land-surveying the decumanus maximus was established as an axis of orientation on the basis of to…

Lupinus

(47 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Latin term for the lupin ( Lupinus albus; Lupin), which was used instead of coins in board games as a counter. As a small weight it was equal to a 1/4 scripulum , about 0.28 grammes or 1/100 of an ounce. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)

Kapetis

(56 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (καπέτις; kapétis). Persian measure of volume for dry goods; it corresponds to 1/48 of an artabe, therefore to 1 Attic choinix and c. 1.1 l [1. 479-482]. Xenophon also mentions a καπίθη/ kapíthē, which corresponded to 2 Attic choinikes (Xen. An. 1,5,6). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griech. und röm. Metrologie, 21882.

Plethron

(96 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (πλέθρον/ pléthron). A p. (Latin iugerum) is a Greek unit of length of 100 feet, corresponding to 1/6 στάδιον/ stádion (Stadion). Depending on the underlying length of the foot (Pous), it has a length of c. 27-35 m; an Attic plethron comes to 31 m. In Homeric epic, plethron is synonymous with the length of a furrow; plethron can also be found there as a unit of area for a piece of land 100 feet square (cf. also Hom. Il. 23,164: ἑκατόμπεδον ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα). Measures Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 28.

Pertica

(155 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Pertica is the name given to the measuring rod (bar) of the Roman land surveyor and architect (mostly with a length of 10 feet ( decempeda ) = c. 2,96 m, more rarely with 12, 15 or 17 feet). Pertica is also the t.t. for the area surveyed with the rod as well as, in the form pertica quadrata, for the surface measurement for an area of 10 × 10 feet. As a regional special form, pertica is known from Germania as a length measure of 12 feet according to the pes Drusianus at 33.3 cm, corresponding to 3.99 m. In agriculture, pertica is the term for the stakes used in viticulture to at…

Sescuncia

(126 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (also sescunx; sesqui unciae = 1 1/2 unciae ). Roman unit for 1/8 of a larger whole. As a weight it equals 1/8 of a libra [1] = 40.93 gr. (value mark I-L; AE 1968, 258), as a length, 1/8 of a pes = 37 mm, as an area, 1/8 of a iugerum = 315 m2. In the eastern Mediterranean the sescuncia as a weight was also equal to 12 Attic drachmai (value mark I-B). In coinage, the  sescuncia corresponds to 1/8 of an as , later also 1/8 of a denarius . As a coin the sescuncia is found in Venusia (SNG Munich, 1970, 550) and in Paestum (SNG Copenhagen, 1969, 1346). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliog…

Hexas

(285 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (ἑξᾶς; hexâs). Greek name for silver and aes coins from Sicily and (more rarely) southern Italy worth 1/6   litra ; also called dionkion, Latin equivalent   sextans , since the coin system used there was based on 12 unciae to the litra. Value symbol: 2 dots. The extremely rare smallest silver coins (average weight 0.14 g) of this nominal are attested in Tarentum [5. 1117-1121], Acragas [2. 122], Himera [1. 30], Leontini [7. 1345], Messana [7. 326], Segesta [1. 48] and Syracuse [3. 373]. Owing to the non-uniform standard of the bronze litra, the aes coins have greatl…

Measure of volume

(1,573 words)

Author(s): Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Felber, Heinz (Leipzig) | Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Measures of volume were used to measure liquids and especially grain and other bulk solids (dates, etc.). Therefore, they were employed in the administration of grain, including the issuing of rations. According to cuneiform sources, ordinary measuring vessels (especially the sea) were made of wood. Special measures for liquids can only be identified locally with a standard ‘vessel’ usually containing 20 or 30 litres. Despite all temporal and local differences, a relatively constant absolute size of the small unit (Sumerian sìla, Akkadian = c.…

Medimnos

(102 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (μέδιμνος; médimnos) is the largest Greek unit of measurement for dry substances, with a volume of 6 hekteis ( Hekteus), equivalent to 48 choinikes ( Choinix) and 192 kotylai ( Kotyle [2]). According to Hultsch, it equals c. 52.5 l, according to Nissen c. 51.8 l with considerable regional differences. Measures of volume Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 108, 703 tab. X 2 M. Lang, M. Crosby, Weights, Measures and Tokens (The Athenian Agora 10), 1964, 41ff. 3 H. Nissen, Griechische und römische M…

Quadrantal

(177 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] The quadrantal (cubic foot) was the basic Roman unit of volume (Measure of volume) for liquids, identical in measurement to the amphora [2], equal to 2 urnae, 8 congii, 48 sextarii, 96 heminae, 192 quartarii etc. (cf. table). Calibrated to water, the quadrantal was equal to 80 librae (1 libra = 327.45 g), i.e. 26.2 litres. The quadrantal was probably standardized in the late 3rd cent. BC by a lex Silia de mensuris et ponderibus (Fest. 288). The Roman measures of volume and their relationships     Unit of volume    acetabulum     quartarius     hemina     sextarius    …

Kypros

(2,178 words)

Author(s): Briese, Christoph (Randers) | Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
(Cyprus) [German version] [1] [German version] I. Neolithic I (Khirokitia culture, c. 7000-6000 BC) and II (Sotira culture, 4500-3900 BC) The settlement of K. (for the history see also Cyprus II) began relatively late and differed significantly from that of the neighbouring regions Anatolia, Syria, and Palestine. While small groups of hunter-gatherers there gradually became settled farmers around 9000/8000 BC, the earliest inhabitants of the island of K. were, from the beginning, farmers, herders, hunters, and fis…

Sextula

(144 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] ('A small sixth' = 1/6 of the u ncia ; cf. Varro Ling. 5,171: aeris minima pars sextula, quod sexta pars unciae). Roman unit of measurement constituting 1/72 of a bigger whole. As unit of weight, the sextula corresponds to 1/72 of the libra [1] = 4,55 g, as unit of area to 1/72 of the iugerum = 35 m2. In the Late Roman and Byzantine weight system, the sextula was equivalent to four scripula (value symbol Δ; scripulum ) or one solidus (value symbol N). Sextula also appears as part of the declared weight on silver crockery from Late Antiquity (CIL XIII 3100,5; 10026,25; 29a). Schulzki…

Iugerum

(232 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Latin name for a square measure comprising a rectangle of 120 × 240 feet = 35,52 × 71,04 m = 2523 m2 = 1/4 ha, made up of two squares ( Actus [2]) [1. 84f.; 3. 9f.], according to Plin. HN 18,3,9 the area which could be ploughed in one day by one yoke of oxen, in a figurative sense a ‘day's work’. Division according to the duodecimal system into 2 actus, 12 unciae, 288   scripula , with 1 scripulum corresponding to 100 square feet. A full calculation of the sub-units is given by Columella 5,1,4-5,2,10 [2. 627]. Varro, Rust. 1,10,2 mentions   heredium (2 I.), centuria (200 I.) and   sa…

Kados

(128 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (κάδος; kádos, Latin cadus, ‘jug, pail’). Graeco-Latin term for a vessel, usually earthen, for storing fluids. In Athens, kados was also the term for the biggest unit in the measure of volume, synonymous with metretes, equal to 39,4 l. [1. 101-102; 703 table X A]. In Rome, kados was the measure of Greek wines, as opposed to Italian wines, which were measured by the amphora [2]. In Roman literature, kados is a technical term for wine jug, often used metonymically for wine by the poets of the Augustan period. Records show that satirists also used the…

Hekte

(190 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (ἕκτη; héktē). Greek term for the sixth of a unit. Nominal term for the electrum staters ( Stater) of Cyzicus (inscription IG I2 199; 203), Mytilene and Phocaea made of a gold-silver alloy. In addition, series from the 7th to the 5th cents. BC have been found from indeterminate minting sites of Asia Minor that were launched according to the Milesian, Phocaean and Samian-Euboean standard [3. 7-17]. The coins of Mytilene and Phocaea made in the gold-silver ratio of 1:131/3 [1. 55] as joint mintings according to the coinage agreement of 394 BC [2. 29] corresp…

Hemina

(166 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] ( emina). Latin term adopted from the Greek (ἡμίνα; hēmína) for a measure of volume for liquids and dry goods in the volume of 1/96  amphora, 1/32  modius, 1/2  sextarius, corresponding to 2  quartarii, 4  acetabula, 6  cyathi. It corresponds to 0.273 l; calibrated in relation to water, there are 10 ounces to 1 hemina. Widespread as a measurement for drinks - comparable with ‘half a pint’ in comedy and in other writers [1. 2602-2604] as well as a quantity indicator in recipes in Caelius Apicius [2. 99-100; 3. 143]. As an oil measure, hemina describes by the name λιτραῖ…

Konche

(81 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (κόγχη; kónchē; Lat. concha; ‘mussel, small bowl’); technical term for a minimum measure, used mostly by doctors to specify a quantity of ointment. In this system, the ‘large konche’ (μεγάλη κόγχη/ megálē konche) is equivalent to an oxybaphon and corresponds to c. 0.06 l, the ‘small konche’ (ἐλάττων κόγχη, eláttōn konche) equivalent to 1/2 cyathus [2] and corresponds to c. 0.02 l [1. 636]. Measures of volume Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882.

Groma

(227 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (Greek γνώμων; gnṓmōn). Name of the Roman  surveyors' device for determining straight lines and right angles when surveying a terrain. It consists of a pole about the height of a man ( ferramentum) and a rotatable cross of four horizontal rods ( stella) attached to it at right angles. On the four ends were attached plumb-lines ( perpendicula) almost down to the ground. The plumb attached to the centre point of the rotary cross ( umbilicus soli) was aligned above the measurement point by a slight slanting of the ferramentum [3]. The application is known through Heron o…

Metretes

(110 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (μετρητής; metrētḗs) is the Greek name for the largest unit of measurement for fluids, synonymous with kados , a volume of 12 chóai ( Chous [1]), corresponding to 144 kotýlai ( Kotyle [2]). It is equivalent to approximately 39,4 litres, according to Hultsch, whereas Nissen puts it at approximately 38,9 litres. Measures of Volume Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882 (reprint 1971), 101f., 703 table X A 2 M. Lang, M. Crosby, Weights, Measures and Tokens (The Athenian Agora 10), 1964, 56ff. 3 H. Nissen, G…

Kyathos

(159 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] [1] See Pottery, shapes and types of see  Pottery, shapes and types of Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) [German version] [2] Measure of volume for fluids (κύαθος/ kýathos, Latin cyathus; 'cup'); Graeco-Latin term for a measure of volume for fluids amounting to 1/6 kotyle [2] or 1/72 chous [1] in the Greek system [1. 104] and 1/12 sextarius or 1/576 amphora [2] [1. 117] in the Roman, equivalent to approx. 0.045 l. In the Roman system, the cyathus was also a unit of measure for the ladle used to serve wine from the krater into the drinking-cup [1. 118], the volume of …

Ro

(44 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] ( r­, literally 'cup') is an Egyptian measure of capacity for fluids and dry goods at 1/32 Hin ( c. 0,48 l) and corresponds to c. 0,015 l. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 W. Helck, S. Vleming, s. v. Maße u. Gewichte, LÄ 3, 1201 f.

Measures

(1,991 words)

Author(s): Renger, Johannes (Berlin) | Sallaberger, Walther (Leipzig) | Höcker, Christoph (Kissing) | Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] I. Ancient Orient Although the different basic measurement systems (length, measures of volume and weights) were created and defined independently of each other, at least in Mesopotamia relationships between them were established. In the Ancient Orient as elsewhere, the terms for measures of length were based on body parts (cubit, palm and finger widths), however, the foot was not used as a basic measure of length. Regional and temporal differences must be considered. The Babylonian ‘cubit’ (Sumerian kùš, Akkadian ammatu, normally c. 50 cm; in the 1st millenni…

Palaiste

(115 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (παλαιστή/ palaist ). Greek unit of length (a 'hand's width', cf. Latin palmus ) of 4 δάκτυλοι ( dáktyloi), corresponding to 1/4 foot. Extrapolating from the length of the underlying measurement, the foot (πούς/ pous ), the palaiste is between 68 and 87 mm long. This unit of measure, the dáktylos ('finger's width'), the σπιθαμή ( spithamḗ /'span') and the πῆχυς ( pêchys /'cubit') draw on the proportions of the human body. According to Herodotus 1 foot corresponds to 4 hands and a cubit to 6 hands (Hdt. 2,149,3). Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsc…

Passus

(113 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Roman measure of length (two paces; Greek βῆμα διπλοῦν/ bêma diploûn) of 5 feet, corresponding to c. 1.48 m. The passus formed the basic unit for measuring mileage, the Roman road surveys providing distance data on the basis of 1,000 times the passus, i.e. the mille passus (plural milia passuum, abbreviated as MP and corresponding to 1.48 km) (cf. for instance ILS 23: milestone of Polla). In military terminology, milia passuum was also used by way of asserting feats of marching (cf. for instance Veg. Mil. 1,27). Milestones Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliograp…

Spithame

(112 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (σπιθαμή/ spithamḗ, handspan). Greek unit of length taken from the proportions of the human body, extending between the tips of the thumb and little finger, equal to 1/2 pchys , i.e. 3 palaistaí ( palaist ) or 12 dáktyloi dáktylos [1]. Depending on the underlying foot size ( pous ), its length was c. 20-26 cm. According to a metrological relief from the island Salamis [1], the Attic spithame was 24,3 cm long. There was no unit of length corresponding to spithame in the Roman measurement system. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 K. W. Beinhauer (ed.),…

Sextarius

(163 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (later Greek ξέστης/ xéstēs, 'a sixth'). Roman unit of fluid and dry capacity equalling 1/48 of an amphora [2], 1/6 of a congius, 2 heminae , 4 quartarii and 12 cyathi (Cyathus [2]; see table); a sextarius corresponds to approximately 0,546 l. As a measure of volume sextarius also occurs on ancient measuring vessels. Colloquially sextarius was also used for 1/6 of anything. The sextarius was the largest measure of both fluid and dry capacity; higher units had distinct names. Roman units of fluid and dry capacity and their relationships: sextarius      Unit:     cyathus  …

Leuga

(360 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Gallo-Roman unit of measurement of Celtic origin for measuring and displaying distances on roads in Aquitania from the 2nd cent. AD and in the other Gaulish as well the two German provinces from the beginning of the 3rd cent. One leuga is equivalent to 1.5 Roman miles and corresponds to c. 2,200 m. Whilst in the 1st and 2nd cents. in these provinces the distance indications on the miliaria ( Milestones) were provided exclusively in Roman miles (abbreviation M P = milia passuum), the measures generally appeared in leugae (abbreviation L) from the time of Septimius Sev…

Pondo

(45 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Fossilised ablative of limitation of Latin pondus, -i, 'in weight'. Often used instead of libra [1] as a basic Roman unit of weight in the sense 'at a weight of 1 pound'. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882.

Ulna

(111 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (ὠλένη/ ōlénē, literally 'elbow'). A measure of length based on one of the proportions of the human body which appears primarily in poetry (cf. e.g. Hor. Epod. 4,8; Verg. Ecl. 4,105; Verg. G. 3,355); its extent is inconsistent. Whereas the term is occasionally used as a synonym for cubitus (ell = 11/2 feet), it is also found in Plinius [1] the Elder as a translation of ὄργυια/ órgyia (fathom = 6 feet; cf. Plin. HN 36,87 with Hdt. 2,148,7), the length a human can span with both arms (Plin. HN 16,133; 16,202). Use as an official measure of length is improbable. Schulzki, Heinz-Jo…

Libra

(249 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] [1] Unit of weight (also pondus, ‘pound’, metonymic ‘what has been weighted’; Greek equivalent: λίτρα/ lítra). Terminus technicus for the unit of weight of 327,45 g of the Roman measuring system; a libra corresponds to the as , which in the duodecimal system was divided into 12 unciae of 27,28g [2. 706 fig. XIII]. The standard very likely remained unchanged until early Byzantine times, as evidenced by weighing coins of precious metals and silver implements. [3. 222]. As weights, we find librae of bronze and of lead, also of stone. They are to be differentiated…

Pechys

(137 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] (πῆχυς; pêchys). Greek measure of length derived from the proportions of the human body, from the tip of the longest finger to the elbow ('ell' or 'cubit', Latin Cubitus), equal to 2 σπιθαμαί ( spithamaí/'handspans' ), 6 παλαισταί ( palaistaí/'handbreadths'; cf. Latin Palmus) as well as 24 δάκτυλοι ( dáktyloi/'fingerbreadths'; cf. Latin digitus), corresponding to 1 1/2 feet (cf. Vitr. De arch. 3,1,8). Depending on the foot measure (Pous) that was used, its length was c. 40-52 cm. According to a metrological relief from the island of Salamis, the Attic pechys measured …

Palmus

(84 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Roman measure of length ('palm'; cf. the Greek palaistḗ) of 4 digiti, corresponding to 1/4 foot and a length of c. 74 mm (cf. Vitr. De arch. 3,1,8: "relinquitur pes quattuor palmorum, palmus autem habet quattuor digitos."). Like digitus ('finger width') and pes ('foot') this unit of length is based on the proportions of the human body. Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim) Bibliography 1 F. Hultsch, Griechische und römische Metrologie, 21882, 74f. 2 H. Nissen, Griechische und römische Metrologie (Handbuch der klassischen Altertumswissenschaft 1), 21892, 842f.

Hin

(129 words)

Author(s): Schulzki, Heinz-Joachim (Mannheim)
[German version] Egyptian hollow measure for fluids and dry materials of 1/10 ḥqt ( hekat) in the Old Kingdom or 1/40 jpt ( oipe) in the New Kingdom, corresponding to c. 0.48 l [3. 1201], with minimal differences upwards [1. 1644] and downwards [2. 1152]. The hin is the only remaining unit from the Demotic period, corroborated by extant measuring vessels. Its relations to the  artabe and  choinix are contentious [3. 1210]. Measuring vessels based on the hin have also been handed down from the New Kingdom: mḥt = 1 hin, pg = 1/4 hin, mnḏqt = 50 hin, which seem, however, not to have h…
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