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Aonia

(91 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀονίη; Aoníē). Region of Boeotia, site of the Helicon, named after the ancient people of the Aones and their eponym Aon, the son of Poseidon (Schol. Stat. Theb. 134). In Greek-Hellenistic and especially in Roman poetry, derivations from this are used as learned designations for Boeotia (Callim. Fr. 2a 30 with schol.; Verg. Ecl. 6,65), Thebes (Call. h. 4,75 with Schol.), for Helicon (Verg. G. 3,11) and the associated spring of Aganippe (Verg. Ecl. 10,12) and also for the Muses (Ov. Met. 5,333). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Auson

(29 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Αὔσων; Aúsōn). Son of Odysseus (or Atlas) and Circe (or Calypso). First king of the  Ausones (Serv. Aen. 3,171; 8,328 a.o). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Ceres

(2,068 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] A. Cult in early Italy Italian goddess who was connected especially with grain, as well as with the realm of the dead and who was equated early in Roman history with the Greek Demeter. Numerous inscriptions prove the cult's existence in central and southern Italy from the late 7th cent. BC onwards. Wherever it is possible to ascertain details, she is especially associated with grain (Faliscan inscription from the period about 600 [1. 241; 2. 43], Paelignian inscription from Corfinium [1. 204; 3], Oscan tablet from Agnone c. 250 BC [1. 147; 4], bust from Aricia w…

Asterion

(57 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀστερίων; Asteríōn). [German version] [1] Mythical king of Crete Cretan king, who married  Europa and adopted her children by Zeus (Hes. fr. 140; Bacchyl. fr. 10; Apollod. 3,5; 8). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) [German version] [2] The Minotaurus Son of Pasiphae with the Cretan bull, thus  Minotaurus (Apollod. 3,11; Paus. 2,31,1). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Acca Larentia

(518 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (rarely, Larentina). Elusive figure of myth and cult in Rome; whether she is identical with the Mater Larum (also revered by the Arval priests), is disputed [9. 587-595; 10]. Her aetiological myth has come down in two versions and an extension (synthesis in the Fasti Praenestini, cf. Plut. Romulus 4 f.; qu.R. 35,272 ef; [1]): 1. At the time of Ancus Marcius the aedituus of Hercules plays dice with his god for a meal and a woman; the aedituus loses and brings the prostitute Acca La…

Hierodouloi

(340 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (ἱερόδουλοι; hieródouloi, ἱεροὶ δοῦλοι; hieroì doûloi). Literally, ‘temple slaves’; in ancient life they were, first, persons who (like land) were the property of a temple but not cultic personnel, second, persons who were donated as slaves (and often as cultic personnel) to the temple, and third, slaves who achieved partial or complete freedom through transfer to a deity (sacred  manumission). In modern terminology the holy prostitutes stand in the foreground ( Prostitution), as attes…

Arestor

(98 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀρέστωρ; Aréstōr). Son of Phorbas, great-grandson of Argus [1], father of Argus [2] by Mycene (Hes. fr. 246; Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 66 f.). The Argives are called Arestoridae after him (Kallim. h. 5,34). Another version of his lineage is that he is the son of Ecbasus, the grandson of Argus [1] and father of Pelasgus and Io (Charax FGrH 103 F 13, 15). The variants demonstrate that he is the product of systemizations of family trees rather than an actual independent character [1]. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography Ed. Meyer, Forsch. zur Alten Gesch., 1, 92-94.

Agathos Daimon

(329 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀγαθὸς Δαίμων, also Agathodaímōn). As ‘good deity’ a deity of blessing especially of private worship, often connected with Agathe  Tyche (Ἀγαθὴ Τύχη) [1], as guardian of individual visitors of the oracle in the sanctuary of Trophonius (Paus. 9,39,5); where Agathos Daimon (AD) is specified this does not happen uniformly. In Greek households AD was given a gift of pure wine after each meal (Aristoph. Equ. 105-107; cf. Vesp. 525), had home altars [2] in the Hellenistic period and could…

Anthus

(53 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἄνθος; Ánthos). Son of Autonous and Hippodamia, who was torn apart by his father's horses and transformed into the bird A.; since then he flees from horses and imitates their neighing (Aristot. Hist. an. 9,1 609b 14; Plin. HN 10,116; cf. Ant. Lib. 7).  Acanthis. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)

Halirrhothius

(187 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἁλιρρόθιος; Halirrhóthios). Attic hero, son of Poseidon and a nymph, whose death was the subject of the first trial before the  Areopagus. In the most common form of the myth, which explains the role of the Areopagus as a homicide court, he rapes the daughter of Ares and Aglaurus, Alcippe, and is struck down by Ares; the site of both deeds is the spring in the later Asclepium above the theatre of Dionysus. Poseidon indicts Ares, the court of the twelve gods acquits him (Eur. El. 1…

Incubation

(618 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (from the Latin incubare; Greek ἐγκοιμᾶσθαι/ enkoimâsthai, ‘to sleep in a temple’). The term for a method, practised in many religions, for receiving revelations: the sleep in a sacred place, during which the superhuman occupant of the place appears, gives information and advice (even in the comic fracture of Aristoph. Plut. 698-747 Asclepius himself appears). In Graeco-Roman antiquity, just as in Byzantine Christianity, incubation was particularly practised in the  healing cults, above…

Aceso

(64 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἀκεσώ). Healing heroine ( akéomai ‘to heal’), daughter of Asclepius and Epione, venerated in Epidaurus (Suda s. v. Ἠπιόνη 578 eagle). In inscriptions in Athens, as daughter of Epione she is connected with Iaso, Panacea, Hygiea (LSCG 21 A) and  Aegle [4] (CIA III 171 b). Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography Edelstein, Asclepius vol. 2, 87 ff. J. Larson, Greek Heroine Cults, 1994, 62 f.

Ixion

(205 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (Ἰξίων; Ixíōn). Thessalian king and one of the great sinners being punished in the Underworld. According to Pindar, he is the first murderer of a relative (Pindar leaves the identity of the victim open, later - Pherecydes FGrH 3 F 51 - it is his father-in-law Eïoneus). When Zeus purifies him personally from the blood of murder (Aesch. Eum. 717f.) and takes him to himself, he wants to indecently assault Hera; but Zeus substitutes a cloud for her and I. fathers the first  Centaurs (u…

Mysteria

(1,961 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Μυστήρια/ Mystḗria). [German version] A. Terminology Mysteria is the Attic name of the main cult festival of Demeter and Kore (Persephone) in Eleusis [1]. The name is formed in the same way as most Attic festival names, but the etymology is unclear (Mysteries [1. 15]). Eleusis was also the place for the polis festival of the Eleusinia, a festival which included games and contests, probably held in late spring, in modern times often confused with the Mysteria. Beginning with Hdt. 2,51,2, the festival…

Afterlife, concepts of

(1,141 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Views about what awaits humans after death exist in most cultures. In the Graeco-Roman world, they were found in literature and art, in philosophical reflection, theological propaganda and, not least, in epitaphs; yet the literary and philosophical opinions in themselves are more coherent than the everyday concepts expressed in the epitaphs. It must also be emphasized that it is difficult to discern a strong connection between concepts of the afterlife and funerary rites, in the s…

Alcathoe, Alcithoe

(173 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
(Ἀλκαθόη, Ἀλκιθόη; Alkathóē, Alkithóē). [German version] [1] Figure of Greek myth: One of the Minyades One of the Minyades, together with Leucippe and Arsinoe, daughter of Minyas of Orchomenus. Her myth belongs to the myths of resistance against Dionysus and is an aition of their  agrionia (Plut. Quaest. Graec. 299ef). While all the other women celebrated the god on the mountain, the Minyades remained at the loom and remained unmoved by miraculous signs. Finally Dionysus made them insane; they tore Leucippe's …

Aedituus

(258 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] ‘Temple guardians’, older, aeditumus (discussions of the word form Varro, ling. 7,12; rust. 1,2,1; Gell. NA 12,2; ThLL 1,934,6 ff.). The aedituus (inscriptions attested for women also: CIL VI 2209. 2213) is especially responsible for access to the temple -- he opens the temple, gives admittance to private individuals, even to the cult idol itself (Sen. Epist. 41,1), and can also, when directed by the responsible magistrate, open the temple on exceptional occasions, for instance for thanksgiving festi…

Anna

(87 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Sister of  Dido; she plays an important narrative role especially in Verg. Aen. 4 [1]. Her earlier history is not clear: according to Varro it was not Dido, but rather A. who immolated herself for love of Aeneas (Serv. auct. Verg. Aen. 4,682; Serv. Verg. Aen. 5,2). Ovid at the latest identifies her with the goddess  Anna Perenna; the possibly Semitic name of Dido's sister was associated by popular etymology with annus, ‘year’. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography 1 R. Heinze, Vergils ep. Technik, 1915, 126-130.

Carmentis

(253 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] (In Greek always, in Latin very rarely Carmenta). Roman goddess of birth and ‘everything future’ (Fast. Praenestini on 11 January). Even if in historical times, she was overshadowed by related female deities (especially  Iuno Lucina), her old importance is evident in the existence of a Flamen Carmentalis. Her sanctuary lay between the Capitol and the Tiber at the Porta Carmentalis [1] and was regarded as being founded by the matrons at the resumption of births after a birth-strike…

Abeona

(82 words)

Author(s): Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH)
[German version] Roman ‘special deity’ which according to Varro (ant. rer. div. 116 Cardauns) is mentioned in Christian polemic (Tert. Ad nat. 2,11; Aug. civ. 4,21) together with Adeona, and is derived from abire or adire. According to Varro both are deities of childhood; the etymological derivation probably refers to the first attempts to walk. The problems associated with all   indigitamenta apply to the name. Graf, Fritz (Columbus, OH) Bibliography B. Cardauns, M. Terentius Varro. Antiquitates rerum divinarum II (commentary), 1976, 206.
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