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Clarke, Samuel

(158 words)

Author(s): Byrne, Peter
[German Version] Oct 11, 1675, Norwich – May 17, 1729, Leicestershire), an exponent of rationalist and liberal theology in the 18th century. Clarke studied in Cambridge where he came under the influence of I. Newton. In A Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of God (1705) Clarke defended a cosmological proof of the existence of God, which was based on the necessity of explaining why contingent being exists. A Discourse concerning the Unchangeable Obligations of Natural Religion argues that the principles of morality can be discerned by reason without reliance on faith and revelation. According to Scripture Doctrine of the Trinity the orthodox views of the Trinity are insufficiently grounded, which provoked accusations of Arianism (Arius/Arianism) and heresy. In his correspondence with G.W. Leibniz (1717) Clarke argues against determinist philosophies and defends free will. Peter Byrne Bibliography The Works

Butler, Joseph

(362 words)

Author(s): Byrne, Peter
[German Version] (May 18, 1692, Wantage, Berkshire – Jun 16, 1752, Bath) studied at Oriel College in Oxford and held many appointments in the Church of England (including bishop of Bristol, dean of St. Paul's, and bishop of Durham). His main works are: Fifteen Sermons Preached at the Rolls Chapel

Bradley, Francis Herbert

(146 words)

Author(s): Byrne, Peter
[German Version] (Jan 30, 1846, London – Sep 18, 1924, Oxford) spent his working life as a fellow of Merton College in Oxford. Bradley was one of the most important representatives of late 19th and early 20th-century Absolute Idealism in English philosophy. His ideas provided the target for the developing analytic school of G.E. Moore and B. …

Natural Religion

(1,284 words)

Author(s): Byrne, Peter | Holmes, Stephen R.
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion

Empiricism

(863 words)

Author(s): Engfer, Jürgen | Byrne, Peter | Peters, Karl E.
[German Version] I. Philosophy – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Science and Religion I. Philosophy The contrasting positions held by empiricists and rationalists (Rationalism) were ori…

Agnosticism

(1,006 words)

Author(s): Löhr, Gebhard | Byrne, Peter | Ven, Johannes van der | Ustorf, Werner
[German Version] I. History of Religions – II. Philosophy of Religion – III. Practical Theology – IV. Missiology I. History of Religions The term “agnosticism” originally referred to the impossibility of attaining certain metaphysical knowledge or, with reference to transcendent questions, to gain grounded judgments. The …

Deism

(4,554 words)

Author(s): Byrne, Peter | Hornig, Gottfried | Pailin, David Arthur | Walters, Kerry S.
[German Version] I. Philosophy of Religion – II. Dogmatics – III. Europe – IV. North America I. Philosophy of Religion Deism has a current and a historical sense in theology and philosophy of religion. Its current sense, dating from the end of the 18th century, denotes belief in a first cause who made the world but no longer exercises any providential…